The Babylonian Empire
The Babylonian Empire was one of the most ancient and powerful of the major human kingdoms. Standing on the Euphrates, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, Babylon saw a monumental list of kings reaching back to 2300 B.C., and includes Khammurabi, the contemporary of Abraham. Khammurabi founded the new empire of Chaldea, making Babylon the capital of the united kingdom. This city gradually grew in extent and grandeur, but in process of time it became subject to Assyria. On the fall of Nineveh in 606 B.C. it threw off the Assyrian yoke, and became the capital of the growing Babylonian empire.
Under Nebuchadnezzar it became one of the most splendid cities of the ancient world. The New Babylonian Empire, which existed from 606 to 536 B.C., fully conquered the southern kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C. It was then that the Babylonians completely devastated the city of Jerusalem, looted and burned the original Temple of God, built by Solomon, and carried the people of Judah, including Daniel, off into captivity.
In 536 B.C., after 70 years of supremacy, the head of gold of the statue in Nebuchadenzzar's Dream, came to an end when it fell to the Persians.