The Ancient Greek Empire
The Persian Empire persisted for nearly two hundred years after toppling the mighty Babylonians, but over time it became a large, inefficient and proud nation, believing that it was invulnerable to decay or collapse. An arrogant young man from an obscure little country was soon to give them a shock and alter the course of world history forever. The man was Alexander the Great.
Alexander was born to King Philip of Macedon and tutored by the great Aristotle himself. In 332 B.C. aged 20, he assumed command of the Greek army and after putting down a rebellion in Greece, he amassed an army of Greeks to do battle with the mighty Persian Empire. The idea was laughable but within the course of ten years, the entire world from Greece to India was ruled — and influenced — by the Greeks.
Alexander's influence had long-lasting effects. The Greek culture and language pervaded the region for centuries afterward. People everywhere began to adopt the Greek language, thought and way of life. The Old Testament was translated into the Greek, while the New Testament was written in Greek, a fact that helped the word of God to spread rapidly across the world.
After Alexander's death, his empire was taken over by four of his generals. Syria went to Seluecus and Egypt to Ptolomy. The land of Israel, situated between them, was first held by Syria, and then by Egypt from 301 B.C., and then back to Syria when Antiochus the Great took it in 198 B.C.
Daniel had prophesied the rule of Alexander when he interpreted King Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the giant statue. But that was not the only prophecy that he made about the young warrior. He also prophesied Alexander's conquests, premature death, and the succession by his generals!
The goat became very great, but at the height of his power his large horn was broken off, and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.
The two-horned ram that you saw represents the kings of Media and Persia. The shaggy goat is the king of Greece, and the large horn between his eyes is the first king. The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kingdoms that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power.