The second set of the two tablets of stone with God's Covenant engraved on them, commonly known as the Ten Commandments, was placed in a sacred ark that came to be known as the Ark of the Covenant. The Ark of the Covenenant itself was placed in a structure called the Tabernacle.
The Tabernacle - also variously referred to as the tabernacle of the congregation, the tabernacle of the testimony, the tabernacle of witness, and the house/temple of the Lord - was built by the children of Israel under the supervision of Moses, around 1450 B.C. The layout of the Tabernacle and the materials of its construction were specified in great detail to Moses by God at Mount Sinai, a few weeks after the Exodus. The entire 26th Chapter of Exodus is devoted to it.
The Tabernacle was a portable construction that was transported by one tribe through the 40 years in the desert wilderness and on into the land of Canaan. It comprised a rectangular enclosure about 45 feet long and 15 feet broad. Its two sides and its western end were made of boards of acacia wood, placed on end, resting in sockets of brass, the eastern end being left open.
Internally it was divided by a veil into two chambers, the exterior of which was called the sanctuary; and the interior, the holy of holies. The veil separating these two chambers was a double curtain which was never passed except by the high priest once a year, on the great Day of Atonement. The holy place was separated from the outer court which enclosed the tabernacle by a curtain, which hung over the six pillars which stood at the east end of the tabernacle, and by which it was entered.
The old tabernacle erected by Moses in the wilderness was transferred to Nob, and after the destruction of that city by Saul, to Gibeon.
A new tabernacle was erected by David at Jerusalem, and the ark was brought from Perez-uzzah and deposited in it.