Catechism of the Catholic Church
Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery
Section One: The Sacramental Economy
Chapter One: The Paschal Mystery in the Age of the Church
Article One: The Liturgy - Work of the Holy Trinity
I. The Father - Source and Goal of the Liturgy
1077 "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has
blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blesSing in the heavenly places,
even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we
should be holy and blameless before him. He destined us before him in love
to be his sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will,
to the praise of his glorious Grace which he freely bestowed on us in the
1078 BlesSing is a divine and life-giving action, the source of which is
the Father; his blesSing is both word and gift. When applied to man, the
word "blesSing" means adoration and surrender to his Creator in
1079 From the beginning until the end of time the whole of God's work is a
blesSing. From the liturgical poem of the first creation to the canticles
of the heavenly Jerusalem, the inspired authors proclaim the plan of
salvation as one vast divine blesSing.
1080 From the very beginning God blessed all living beings, especially man
and woman. The covenant with Noah and with all living things renewed this
blesSing of fruitfulness despite man's Sin which had brought a curse on
the ground. But with Abraham, the divine blesSing entered into human
history which was moving toward death, to redirect it toward life, toward
its source. By the faith of "the father of all believers," who embraced
the blesSing, the history of salvation is inaugurated.
1081 The divine blesSings were made manifest in astonishing and saving
events: the birth of Isaac, the escape from Egypt (Passover and Exodus),
the gift of the promised land, the election of David, the presence of God
in the Temple, the purifying exile, and return of a "small remnant." The
Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, interwoven in the liturgy of the Chosen
People, recall these divine blesSings and at the same time respond to them
with blesSings of praise and thanksgiving.
1082 In the Church's liturgy the divine blesSing is fully revealed and
communicated. The Father is acknowledged and adored as the source and the
end of all the blesSings of creation and salvation. In his Word who became
incarnate, died, and rose for us, he fills us with his blesSings. Through
his Word, he pours into our hearts the Gift that contains all gifts, the
1083 The dual dimension of the Christian liturgy as a response of faith
and love to the spiritual blesSings the Father bestows on us is thus
evident. On the one hand, the Church, united with her Lord and "in the
Holy Spirit," blesses the Father "for his inexpressible gift in her
adoration, praise, and thanksgiving. On the other hand, until the
consummation of God's plan, the Church never ceases to present to the
Father the offering of his own gifts and to beg him to send the Holy
Spirit upon that offering, upon herself, upon the faithful, and upon the
whole world, so that through communion in the death and resurrection of
Christ the Priest, and by the power of the Spirit, these divine blesSings
will bring forth the fruits of life "to the praise of his glorious
II. Christ's Work in the Liturgy
Christ glorified . . .
1084 "Seated at the right hand of the Father" and pouring out the Holy
Spirit on his Body which is the Church, Christ now acts through the
sacraments he instituted to communicate his Grace. The sacraments are
perceptible signs (words and actions) accessible to our human nature. By
the action of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit they make present
efficaciously the Grace that they signify.
1085 In the liturgy of the Church, it is principally his own Paschal
mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. During his earthly life
Jesus announced his Paschal mystery by his teaching and anticipated it by
his actions. When his Hour comes, he lives out the unique event of history
which does not pass away: Jesus dies, is buried, rises from the dead, and
is seated at the right hand of the Father "once for all." His Paschal
mystery is a real event that occurred in our history, but it is unique:
all other historical events happen once, and then they pass away,
swallowed up in the past. The Paschal mystery of Christ, by contrast,
cannot remain only in the past, because by his death he destroyed death,
and all that Christ is - all that he did and suffered for all men -
participates in the divine eternity, and so transcends all times while
being made present in them all. The event of the Cross and Resurrection
abides and draws everything toward life.
. . . from the time of the Church of the Apostles . . .
1086 "Accordingly, just as Christ was sent by the Father so also he sent
the apostles, filled with the Holy Spirit. This he did so that they might
preach the Gospel to every creature and proclaim that the Son of God by
his death and resurrection had freed us from the power of Satan and from
death and brought us into the Kingdom of his Father. But he also willed
that the work of salvation which they preached should be set in train
through the sacrifice and sacraments, around which the entire liturgical
1087 Thus the risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles,
entrusted to them his power of sanctifying: they became sacramental
signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this
power to their successors. This "apostolic succession" structures the whole liturgical life of the Church
and is itself sacramental, handed on by the sacrament of Holy Orders.
. . . is present in the earthly liturgy . . .
1088 "To accomplish so great a work" - the dispensation or communication
of his work of salvation - "Christ is always present in his Church,
especially in her liturgical celebrations. He is present in the Sacrifice
of the Mass not only in the person of his minister, 'the same now
offering, through the ministry of priests, who formerly offered himself on
the cross,' but especially in the Eucharistic species. By his power he is
present in the sacraments so that when anybody baptizes, it is really
Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in his word Since it is he
himself who speaks when the holy Scriptures are read in the Church.
Lastly, he is present when the Church prays and Sings, for he has promised
'where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the
midst of them."'
1089 "Christ, indeed, always associates the Church with himself in this
great work in which God is perfectly glorified and men are sanctified. The
Church is his beloved Bride who calls to her Lord and through him offers
worship to the eternal Father."
. . . which participates in the liturgy of heaven
1090 "In the earthly liturgy we share in a foretaste of that heavenly
liturgy which is celebrated in the Holy City of Jerusalem toward which we
journey as pilgrims, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God,
Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle. With all the
warriors of the heavenly army we Sing a hymn of glory to the Lord;
venerating the memory of the saints, we hope for some part and fellowship
with them; we eagerly await the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, until he,
our life, shall appear and we too will appear with him in glory."
III. The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy
1091 In the liturgy the Holy Spirit is teacher of the faith of the People
of God and artisan of "God's masterpieces," the sacraments of the New
Covenant. The desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is
that we may live from the life of the risen Christ. When the Spirit
encounters in us the response of faith which he has aroused in us, he
brings about genuine cooperation. Through it, the liturgy becomes the
common work of the Holy Spirit and the Church.
1092 In this sacramental dispensation of Christ's mystery the Holy Spirit
acts in the same way as at other times in the Economy of Salvation: he
prepares the Church to encounter her Lord; he recalls and makes Christ
manifest to the faith of the assembly. By his transforming power, he makes
the mystery of Christ present here and now. Finally the Spirit of
communion unites the Church to the life and mission of Christ.
The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ
1093 In the sacramental economy the Holy Spirit fulfills what was
prefigured in the Old Covenant. Since Christ's Church was "prepared in
marvellous fashion in the history of the people of Israel and in the Old
Covenant," the Church's liturgy has retained certain elements of the
worship of the Old Covenant as integral and irreplaceable, adopting them
as her own:
-notably, reading the Old Testament;
-praying the Psalms;
-above all, recalling the saving events and significant realities which
have found their fulfillment in the mystery of Christ (promise and
covenant, Exodus and Passover, kingdom and temple, exile and return).
1094 It is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal
catechesis of the Lord is built, and then, that of the Apostles and the
Fathers of the Church. This catechesis unveils what lay hidden under the
letter of the Old Testament: the mystery of Christ. It is called
"typological" because it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the
"figures" (types) which announce him in the deeds, words, and symbols of
the first covenant. By this re-reading in the Spirit of Truth, starting
from Christ, the figures are unveiled. Thus the flood and Noah's ark
prefigured salvation by Baptism, as did the cloud and the crosSing of
the Red Sea. Water from the rock was the figure of the spiritual gifts of
Christ, and manna in the desert prefigured the Eucharist, "the true bread
1095 For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and
above all at the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives the great events of
salvation history in the "today" of her liturgy. But this also demands
that catechesis help the faithful to open themselves to this spiritual
understanding of the economy of salvation as the Church's liturgy reveals
it and enables us to live it.
1096 Jewish liturgy and Christian liturgy. A better knowledge of the
Jewish people's faith and religious life as professed and lived even now
can help our better understanding of certain aspects of Christian liturgy.
For both Jews and Christians Sacred Scripture is an essential part of
their respective liturgies: in the proclamation of the Word of God, the
response to this word, prayer of praise and intercession for the living
and the dead, invocation of God's mercy. In its characteristic structure
the Liturgy of the Word originates in Jewish prayer. The Liturgy of the
Hours and other liturgical texts and formularies, as well as those of our
most venerable prayers, including the Lord's Prayer, have parallels in
Jewish prayer. The Eucharistic Prayers also draw their inspiration from
the Jewish tradition. The relationship between Jewish liturgy and
Christian liturgy, but also their differences in content, are particularly
evident in the great feasts of the liturgical year, such as Passover.
Christians and Jews both celebrate the Passover. For Jews, it is the
Passover of history, tending toward the future; for Christians, it is the
Passover fulfilled in the death and Resurrection of Christ, though always
in expectation of its definitive consummation.
1097 In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action,
especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an
encounter between Christ and the Church. The liturgical assembly derives
its unity from the "communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children
of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial,
cultural, social - indeed, all human affinities.
1098 The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to
become "a people well disposed." The preparation of hearts is the joint
work of the Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers. The
Grace of the Holy Spirit seeks to awaken faith, conversion of heart, and
adherence to the Father's will. These dispositions are the precondition
both for the reception of other Graces conferred in the celebration itself
and the fruits of new life which the celebration is intended to produce
The Holy Spirit recalls the mystery of Christ
1099 The Spirit and the Church cooperate to manifest Christ and his work
of salvation in the liturgy. Primarily in the Eucharist, and by analogy in
the other sacraments, the liturgy is the memorial of the mystery of
salvation. The Holy Spirit is the Church's living memory.
1100 The Word of God. The Holy Spirit first recalls the meaning of the
salvation event to the liturgical assembly by giving life to the Word of
God, which is proclaimed so that it may be received and lived:
In the celebration of the liturgy, Sacred Scripture is extremely
important. From it come the lessons that are read and explained in the
homily and the psalms that are sung. It is from the Scriptures that the
prayers, collects, and hymns draw their inspiration and their force, and
that actions and signs derive their meaning.
1101 The Holy Spirit gives a spiritual understanding of the Word of God to
those who read or hear it, according to the dispositions of their hearts.
By means of the words, actions, and symbols that form the structure of a
celebration, the Spirit puts both the faithful and the ministers into a
living relationship with Christ, the Word and Image of the Father, so that
they can live out the meaning of what they hear, contemplate, and do in
1102 "By the saving word of God, faith . . . is nourished in the hearts of
believers. By this faith then the congregation of the faithful begins and
grows." The proclamation does not stop with a teaching; it elicits the
response of faith as consent and commitment, directed at the covenant
between God and his people. Once again it is the Holy Spirit who gives the
Grace of faith, strengthens it and makes it grow in the community. The
liturgical assembly is first of all a communion in faith.
1103 Anamnesis. The liturgical celebration always refers to God's saving
interventions in history. "The economy of Revelation is realized by deeds
and words which are intrinsically bound up with each other.... [T]he words
for their part proclaim the works and bring to light the mystery they
contain." In the Liturgy of the Word the Holy Spirit "recalls" to the
assembly all that Christ has done for us. In keeping with the nature of
liturgical actions and the ritual traditions of the churches, the
celebration "makes a remembrance" of the marvelous works of God in an
anamnesis which may be more or less developed. The Holy Spirit who thus
awakens the memory of the Church then inspires thanksgiving and praise
The Holy Spirit makes present the mystery of Christ
1104 Christian liturgy not only recalls the events that saved us but
actualizes them, makes them present. The Paschal mystery of Christ is
celebrated, not repeated. It is the celebrations that are repeated, and in
each celebration there is an outpouring of the Holy Spirit that makes the
unique mystery present.
1105 The Epiclesis ("invocation upon") is the intercession in which the
priest begs the Father to send the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, so that
the offerings may become the body and blood of Christ and that the
faithful by receiving them, may themselves become a living offering to
1106 Together with the anamnesis, the epiclesis is at the heart of each
sacramental celebration, most especially of the Eucharist:
You ask how the bread becomes the Body of Christ, and the wine . . . the
Blood of Christ I shall tell you: the Holy Spirit comes upon them and
accomplishes what surpasses every word and thought . . . Let it be enough
for you to understand that it is by the Holy Spirit, just as it was of the
Holy Virgin and by the Holy Spirit that the Lord, through and in himself,
1107 The Holy Spirit's transforming power in the liturgy hastens the
coming of the kingdom and the consummation of the mystery of salvation.
While we wait in hope he causes us really to anticipate the fullness of
communion with the Holy Trinity. Sent by the Father who hears the
epiclesis of the Church, the Spirit gives life to those who accept him and
is, even now, the "guarantee" of their inheritance.
The communion of the Holy Spirit
1108 In every liturgical action the Holy Spirit is sent in order to bring
us into communion with Christ and so to form his Body. The Holy Spirit is
like the sap of the Father's vine which bears fruit on its branches. The
most intimate cooperation of the Holy Spirit and the Church is achieved in
the liturgy. The Spirit who is the Spirit of communion, abides
indefectibly in the Church. For this reason the Church is the great
sacrament of divine communion which gathers God's scattered children
together. Communion with the Holy Trinity and fraternal communion are
inseparably the fruit of the Spirit in the liturgy.
1109 The epiclesis is also a prayer for the full effect of the assembly's
communion with the mystery of Christ. "The Grace of the Lord Jesus Christ
and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit" have to
remain with us always and bear fruit beyond the Eucharistic celebration.
The Church therefore asks the Father to send the Holy Spirit to make the
lives of the faithful a living sacrifice to God by their spiritual
transformation into the image of Christ, by concern for the Church's
unity, and by taking part in her mission through the witness and service
1110 In the liturgy of the Church, God the Father is blessed and adored as
the source of all the blesSings of creation and salvation with which he
has blessed us in his Son, in order to give us the Spirit of filial
1111 Christ's Work in the Liturgy is sacramental: because his mystery of
salvation is made present there by the power of his Holy Spirit; because
his Body, which is the Church, is like a sacrament (sign and instrument)
in which the Holy Spirit dispenses the mystery of salvation; and because
through her liturgical actions the pilgrim Church already participates, as
by a foretaste, in the heavenly liturgy.
1112 The mission of the Holy Spirit in the liturgy of the Church is to
prepare the assembly to encounter Christ; to recall and manifest Christ to
the faith of the assembly; to make the saving work of Christ present and
active by his transforming power; and to make the gift of communion bear
fruit in the Church.
Article Two: The Paschal Mystery in the Church's Sacraments
1113 The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the
Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments. There are seven sacraments in
the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance,
Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony. This article will
discuss what is common to the Church's seven sacraments from a doctrinal
point of view. What is common to them in terms of their celebration will
be presented in the second chapter, and what is distinctive about each
will be the topic of the Section Two.
I. The Sacraments of Christ
1114 "Adhering to the teaching of the Holy Scriptures, to the apostolic
traditions, and to the consensus . . . of the Fathers," we profess that
"the sacraments of the new law were . . . all instituted by Jesus Christ
1115 Jesus' words and actions during his hidden life and public ministry
were already salvific, for they anticipated the power of his Paschal
mystery. They announced and prepared what he was going to give the Church
when all was accomplished. The mysteries of Christ's life are the
foundations of what he would henceforth dispense in the sacraments,
through the ministers of his Church, for "what was visible in our Savior
has passed over into his mysteries."
1116 Sacraments are "powers that comes forth" from the Body of Christ,
which is ever-living and life-giving. They are actions of the Holy Spirit
at work in his Body, the Church. They are "the masterworks of God" in the
new and everlasting covenant.
II. The Sacraments of the Church
1117 As she has done for the canon of Sacred Scripture and for the
doctrine of the faith, the Church, by the power of the Spirit who guides
her "into all truth," has gradually recognized this treasure received from
Christ and, as the faithful steward of God's mysteries, has determined its
"dispensation." Thus the Church has discerned over the centuries that
among liturgical celebrations there are seven that are, in the strict
sense of the term, sacraments instituted by the Lord.
1118 The sacraments are "of the Church" in the double sense that they are
"by her" and "for her." They are "by the Church," for she is the sacrament
of Christ's action at work in her through the mission of the Holy Spirit.
They are "for the Church" in the sense that "the sacraments make the
Church," Since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the
Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who is love, One in three
1119 Forming "as it were, one mystical person" with Christ the head, the
Church acts in the sacraments as "an organically structured priestly
community." Through Baptism and Confirmation the pRiestly people is
enabled to celebrate the liturgy, while those of the faithful "who have
received Holy Orders, are appointed to nourish the Church with the word
and Grace of God in the name of Christ."
1120 The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of
the baptismal priesthood. The ordained priesthood guarantees that it
really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for
the Church. The saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate
Son was committed to the apostles and through them to their successors:
they receive the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person.
The ordained minister is the sacramental bond that ties the liturgical
action to what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words
and actions of Christ, the source and foundation of the sacraments.
1121 The three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders
confer, in addition to Grace, a sacramental character or "seal" by which
the Christian shares in Christ's priesthood and is made a member of the
Church according to different states and functions. This configuration to
Christ and to the Church, brought about by the Spirit, is indelible, it
remains for ever in the Christian as a positive disposition for Grace, a
promise and guarantee of divine protection, and as a vocation to divine
worship and to the service of the Church. Therefore these sacraments can
never be repeated.
III. The Sacraments of Faith
1122 Christ sent his apostles so that "repentance and forgiveness of Sins
should be preached in his name to all nations." "Go therefore and make
disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of
the Son and of the Holy Spirit." The mission to baptize, and so the
sacramental mission, is implied in the mission to evangelize, because the
sacrament is prepared for by the word of God and by the faith which is
assent to this word:
The People of God is formed into one in the first place by the Word of the
living God.... The preaching of the Word is required for the sacramental
ministry itself, Since the sacraments are sacraments of faith, drawing
their origin and nourishment from the Word.
1123 "The purpose of the sacraments is to sanctify men, to build up the
Body of Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are
signs they also instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words
and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it. That is why
they are called 'sacraments of faith."'
1124 The Church's faith precedes the faith of the believer who is invited
to adhere to it. When the Church celebrates the sacraments, she confesses
the faith received from the apostles - whence the ancient saying: lex
orandi, lex credendi (or: legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi according
to Prosper of Aquitaine [5th cent.]). The law of prayer is the law of
faith: the Church believes as she prays. Liturgy is a constitutive element
of the holy and living Tradition.
1125 For this reason no sacramental rite may be modified or manipulated at
the will of the minister or the community. Even the supreme Authority in
the Church may not change the liturgy arbitrarily, but only in the
obedience of faith and with religious respect for the mystery of the
1126 Likewise, Since the sacraments express and develop the communion of
faith in the Church, the lex orandi is one of the essential criteria of
the dialogue that seeks to restore the unity of Christians.
IV. The Sacraments of Salvation
1127 Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the Grace that
they signify. They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at
work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to
communicate the Grace that each sacrament signifies. The Father always
hears the prayer of his Son's Church which, in the epiclesis of each
sacrament, expresses her faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire
transforms into itself everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit
transforms into the divine life whatever is subjected to his power.
1128 This is the meaning of the Church's affirmation that the sacraments
act ex opere operato (literally: "by the very fact of the action's being
performed"), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished
once for all. It follows that "the sacrament is not wrought by the
righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power
of God." From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance
with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts
in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister.
Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition
of the one who receives them.
1129 The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New
Covenant are necessary for salvation. "Sacramental Grace" is the Grace
of the Holy Spirit, given by Christ and proper to each sacrament. The
Spirit heals and transforms those who receive him by conforming them to
the Son of God. The fruit of the sacramental life is that the Spirit of
adoption makes the faithful partakers in the divine nature by uniting
them in a living union with the only Son, the Savior.
V. The Sacraments of Eternal Life
1130 The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord "until he comes," when
God will be "everything to everyone." Since the apostolic age the
liturgy has been drawn toward its goal by the Spirit's groaning in the
Church: Marana tha! The liturgy thus shares in Jesus' desire: "I have
earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you . . . until it is
fulfilled in the kingdom of God." In The Sacraments of Christ the Church
already receives the guarantee of her inheritance and even now shares in
everlasting life, while "awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the
glory of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus." The "Spirit and the
Bride say, 'Come . . . Come, Lord Jesus!"'
St. Thomas sums up the various aspects of sacramental signs: "Therefore a
sacrament is a sign that commemorates what precedes it- Christ's Passion;
demonstrates what is accomplished in us through Christ's Passion - Grace;
and prefigures what that Passion pledges to us - future glory."
1131 The sacraments are efficacious signs of Grace, instituted by Christ
and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The
visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make
present the Graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who
receive them with the required dispositions.
1132 The Church celebrates the sacraments as a priestly community
structured by the baptismal priesthood and the priesthood of ordained
1133 The Holy Spirit prepares the faithful for the sacraments by the Word
of God and the faith which welcomes that word in well-disposed hearts.
Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and express it.
1134 The fruit of sacramental life is both personal and ecclesial. For
every one of the faithful an the one hand, this fruit is life for God in
Christ Jesus; for the Church, on the other, it is an increase in charity
and in her mission of witness.
Cf. SC 6; LG 2.
1 Cor 11:26.
2 Cor 9:15.
Rom 6:10; Heb 7:27; 9:12; cf. Jn 13:1; 17:1.
Cf. Jn 20:21-23.
SC 7; Mt 18:20.
SC 8; cf. LG 50.
Cf. DV 14-16; Lk 24:13-49.
Cf. 2 Cor 3:14-16.
Cf. 1 Pet 3:21.
Jn 6:32; cf. 1 Cor 10:1-6.
Cf. Jn 14:26.
Cf. Rom 12:1.
St. John Damascene, De fide orth 4, 13: PG 94, 1145A.
Cf. Eph 1:14; 2 Cor 1:22.
Cf. Jn 15:1-17; Gal 5:22.
Cf. 1 Jn 1:3-7.
2 cor 13:13.
Cf. SC 6.
Cf. Council of Lyons II (1274) DS 860; Council of Florence (1439) DS 1310; Council of Trent (1547): DS 1601.
Council of Trent (1547): DS 1600-1601.
St. Leo the Great Sermo. 74, 2: PL 54, 398.
Cf. Lk 5:17; 6:19; 8:46.
Jn 16:13; cf. Mt 13:52; 1 Cor 4:1.
St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 22, 17: PL 41, 779; cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 64,2 ad 3.
LG 11; cf. Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (1943).
LG 11 # 2.
Cf. LG 10 # 2.
Cf. Jn 20:21-23; Lk 24:47; Mt 28:18-20.
Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1609.
PO 4 ## 1, 2.
Cf. DV 8.
Cf. UR 2; 15.
Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1605; DS 1606.
Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1608.
St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 68, 8.
Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1604.
Cf. 2 Pet 1:4.
1 Cor 11:26; 15:28.
1 Cor 16:22.
Rev 22:17, 20.
St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 60, 3.