Catechism of the Catholic Church
Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery
Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church
Chapter Two: The Sacraments of Healing
1420 Through The Sacraments of Christian Initiation, man receives the new
life of Christ. Now we carry this life "in earthen vessels," and it
remains "hidden with Christ in God." We are still in our "earthly
tent," subject to suffering, illness, and death. This new life as a
child of God can be weakened and even lost by Sin.
1421 The Lord Jesus Christ, physician of our souls and bodies, who forgave
the Sins of the paralytic and restored him to bodily health, has willed
that his Church continue, in the power of the Holy Spirit, his work of
healing and salvation, even among her own members. This is the purpose of
the two sacraments of healing: the sacrament of Penance and the sacrament
of Anointing of the Sick.
Article Four: The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation
1422 "Those who approach the sacrament of Penance obtain pardon from God's
mercy for the offense committed against him, and are, at the same time,
reconciled with the Church which they have wounded by their Sins and which
by charity, by example, and by prayer labors for their conversion."
I. What is this Sacrament Called?
1423 It is called the sacrament of conversion because it makes
sacramentally present Jesus' call to conversion, the first step in
returning to the Father from whom one has strayed by Sin.
It is called the sacrament of Penance, Since it consecrates the Christian
Sinner's personal and ecclesial steps of conversion, penance, and
1424 It is called the sacrament of confession, Since the disclosure or
confession of Sins to a priest is an essential element of this sacrament.
In a profound sense it is also a "confession" - acknowledgment and praise
- of the holiness of God and of his mercy toward Sinful man.
It is called the sacrament of forgiveness, Since by the priest's
sacramental absolution God grants the penitent "pardon and peace."
It is called the sacrament of Reconciliation, because it imparts to the
Sinner the live of God who reconciles: "Be reconciled to God." He who
lives by God's merciful love is ready to respond to the Lord's call: "Go;
first be reconciled to your brother."
II. Why a Sacrament of Reconciliation after Baptism?
1425 "YOU were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name
of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God." One must
appreciate the magnitude of the gift God has given us in the sacraments of
Christian initiation in order to grasp the degree to which Sin is excluded
for him who has "put on Christ." But the apostle John also says: "If
we say we have no Sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in
us." And the Lord himself taught us to pray: "Forgive us our
trespasses," linking our forgiveness of one another's offenses to the
forgiveness of our Sins that God will grant us.
1426 Conversion to Christ, the new birth of Baptism, the gift of the Holy
Spirit and the Body and Blood of Christ received as food have made us
"holy and without blemish," just as the Church herself, the Bride of
Christ, is "holy and without blemish." Nevertheless the new life
received in Christian initiation has not abolished the frailty and
weakness of human nature, nor the inclination to Sin that tradition calls
concupiscence, which remains in the baptized such that with the help of
the Grace of Christ they may prove themselves in the struggle of Christian
life. This is the struggle of conversion directed toward holiness and
eternal life to which the Lord never ceases to call us.
III. The Conversion of the Baptized
1427 Jesus calls to conversion. This call is an essential part of the
proclamation of the kingdom: "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of
God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel." In the Church's
preaching this call is addressed first to those who do not yet know Christ
and his Gospel. Also, Baptism is the principal place for the first and
fundamental conversion. It is by faith in the Gospel and by Baptism
that one renounces evil and gains salvation, that is, the forgiveness of
all Sins and the gift of new life.
1428 Christ's call to conversion continues to resound in the lives of
Christians. This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole
Church who, "clasping Sinners to her bosom, [is] at once holy and always
in need of purification, [and] follows constantly the path of penance and
renewal." This endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is
the movement of a "contrite heart," drawn and moved by Grace to respond to
the merciful love of God who loved us first.
1429 St. Peter's conversion after he had denied his master three times
bears witness to this. Jesus' look of infinite mercy drew tears of
repentance from Peter and, after the Lord's resurrection, a threefold
affirmation of love for him. The second conversion also has a
communitarian dimension, as is clear in the Lord's call to a whole Church:
St. Ambrose says of the two conversions that, in the Church, "there are
water and tears: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance."
IV. Interior Penance
1430 Jesus' call to conversion and penance, like that of the prophets
before him, does not aim first at outward works, "sackcloth and ashes,"
fasting and mortification, but at the conversion of the heart, interior
conversion. Without this, such penances remain sterile and false; however,
interior conversion urges expression in visible signs, gestures and works
1431 Interior repentance is a radical reorientation of our whole life, a
return, a conversion to God with all our heart, an end of Sin, a turning
away from evil, with repugnance toward the evil actions we have committed.
At the same time it entails the desire and resolution to change one's
life, with hope in God's mercy and trust in the help of his Grace. This
conversion of heart is accompanied by a salutary pain and sadness which
the Fathers called animi cruciatus (affliction of spirit) and compunctio
cordis (repentance of heart).
1432 The human heart is heavy and hardened. God must give man a new
heart. Conversion is first of all a work of the Grace of God who makes
our hearts return to him: "Restore us to thyself, O LORD, that we may be
restored!" God gives us the strength to begin anew. It is in
discovering the greatness of God's love that our heart is shaken by the
horror and weight of Sin and begins to fear offending God by Sin and being
separated from him. The human heart is converted by looking upon him whom
our Sins have pierced:
Let us fix our eyes on Christ's blood and understand how precious it is to
his Father, for, poured out for our salvation it has brought to the whole
world the Grace of repentance.
1433 Since Easter, the Holy Spirit has proved "the world wrong about
Sin," i.e., proved that the world has not believed in him whom the
Father has sent. But this same Spirit who brings Sin to light is also the
Consoler who gives the human heart Grace for repentance and
V. THE MANY FORMS OF PENANCE IN CHRISTIAN LIFE
1434 The Interior Penance of the Christian can be expressed in many and
various ways. Scripture and the Fathers insist above all on three forms,
fasting, prayer, and almsgiving, which express conversion in relation
to oneself, to God, and to others. Alongside the radical purification
brought about by Baptism or martyrdom they cite as means of obtaining
forgiveness of Sins: effort at reconciliation with one's neighbor, tears
of repentance, concern for the salvation of one's neighbor, the
intercession of the saints, and the practice of charity "which covers a
multitude of Sins."
1435 Conversion is accomplished in daily life by gestures of
reconciliation, concern for the poor, the exercise and defense of justice
and right, by the admission of faults to one's brethren, fraternal
correction, revision of life, examination of conscience, spiritual
direction, acceptance of suffering, endurance of persecution for the sake
of righteousness. Taking up one's cross each day and following Jesus is
the surest way of penance.
1436 Eucharist and Penance. Daily conversion and penance find their source
and nourishment in the Eucharist, for in it is made present the sacrifice
of Christ which has reconciled us with God. Through the Eucharist those
who live from the life of Christ are fed and strengthened. "It is a remedy
to free us from our daily faults and to preserve us from mortal Sins."
1437 Reading Sacred Scripture, praying the Liturgy of the Hours and the
Our Father - every Sincere act of worship or devotion revives the spirit
of conversion and repentance within us and contributes to the forgiveness
of our Sins.
1438 The seasons and days of penance in the course of the liturgical year
(Lent, and each Friday in memory of the death of the Lord) are intense
moments of the Church's penitential practice. These times are
particularly appropriate for spiritual exercises, penitential liturgies,
pilgrimages as signs of penance, voluntary self-denial such as fasting and
almsgiving, and fraternal sharing (charitable and missionary works).
1439 The process of conversion and repentance was described by Jesus in
the parable of the prodigal son, the center of which is the merciful
father: the fascination of illusory freedom, the abandonment of the
father's house; the extreme misery in which the son finds himself after
squandering his fortune; his deep humiliation at finding himself obliged
to feed swine, and still worse, at wanting to feed on the husks the pigs
ate; his reflection on all he has lost; his repentance and decision to
declare himself guilty before his father; the journey back; the father's
generous welcome; the father's joy - all these are characteristic of the
process of conversion. The beautiful robe, the ring, and the festive
banquet are symbols of that new life - pure worthy, and joyful - of anyone
who returns to God and to the bosom of his family, which is the Church.
Only the heart Of Christ Who knows the depths of his Father's love could
reveal to us the abyss of his mercy in so simple and beautiful a way.
VI. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation
1440 Sin is before all else an offense against God, a rupture of communion
with him. At the same time it damages communion with the Church. For this
reason conversion entails both God's forgiveness and reconciliation with
the Church, which are expressed and accomplished liturgically by the
sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation.
Only God forgives Sin
1441 Only God forgives Sins. Since he is the Son of God, Jesus says of
himself, "The Son of man has Authority on earth to forgive Sins" and
exercises this divine power: "Your Sins are forgiven." Further, by
virtue of his divine Authority he gives this power to men to exercise in
1442 Christ has willed that in her prayer and life and action his whole
Church should be the sign and instrument of the forgiveness and
reconciliation that he acquired for us at the price of his blood. But he
entrusted the exercise of the power of absolution to the apostolic
ministry which he charged with the "ministry of reconciliation." The
apostle is sent out "on behalf of Christ" with "God making his appeal"
through him and pleading: "Be reconciled to God."
Reconciliation with the Church
1443 During his public life Jesus not only forgave Sins, but also made
plain the effect of this forgiveness: he reintegrated forgiven Sinners
into the community of the People of God from which Sin had alienated or
even excluded them. A remarkable sign of this is the fact that Jesus
receives Sinners at his table, a gesture that expresses in an astonishing
way both God's forgiveness and the return to the bosom of the People of
1444 In imparting to his apostles his own power to forgive Sins the Lord
also gives them the Authority to reconcile Sinners with the Church. This
ecclesial dimension of their task is expressed most notably in Christ's
solemn words to Simon Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of
heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and
whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." "The office of
binding and looSing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the
college of the apostles united to its head."
1445 The words bind and loose mean: whomever you exclude from your
communion, will be excluded from communion with God; whomever you receive
anew into your communion, God will welcome back into his. Reconciliation
with the Church is inseparable from reconciliation with God.
The sacrament of forgiveness
1446 Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance for all Sinful members of
his Church: above all for those who, Since Baptism, have fallen into grave
Sin, and have thus lost their baptismal Grace and wounded ecclesial
communion. It is to them that the sacrament of Penance offers a new
possibility to convert and to recover the Grace of Justification. The
Fathers of the Church present this sacrament as "the second plank [of
salvation] after the shipwreck which is the loss of Grace."
1447 Over the centuries the concrete form in which the Church has
exercised this power received from the Lord has varied considerably.
During the first centuries the reconciliation of Christians who had
committed particularly grave Sins after their Baptism (for example,
idolatry, murder, or adultery) was tied to a very rigorous discipline,
according to which penitents had to do public penance for their Sins,
often for years, before receiving reconciliation. To this "order of
penitents" (which concerned only certain grave Sins), one was only rarely
admitted and in certain regions only once in a lifetime. During the
seventh century Irish missionaries, inspired by the Eastern monastic
tradition, took to continental Europe the "private" practice of penance,
which does not require public and prolonged completion of penitential
works before reconciliation with the Church. From that time on, the
sacrament has been performed in secret between penitent and priest. This
new practice envisioned the possibility of repetition and so opened the
way to a regular frequenting of this sacrament. It allowed the forgiveness
of grave Sins and venial Sins to be integrated into one sacramental
celebration. In its main lines this is the form of penance that the Church
has practiced down to our day.
1448 Beneath the changes in discipline and celebration that this sacrament
has undergone over the centuries, the same fundamental structure is to be
discerned. It comprises two equally essential elements: on the one hand,
the acts of the man who undergoes conversion through the action of the
Holy Spirit: namely, contrition, confession, and satisfaction; on the
other, God's action through the intervention of the Church. The Church,
who through the bishop and his priests forgives Sins in the name of Jesus
Christ and determines the manner of satisfaction, also prays for the
Sinner and does penance with him. Thus the Sinner is healed and
re-established in ecclesial communion.
1449 The formula of absolution used in the Latin Church expresses the
essential elements of this sacrament: the Father of mercies is the source
of all forgiveness. He effects the reconciliation of Sinners through the
Passover of his Son and the gift of his Spirit, through the prayer and
ministry of the Church:
God, the Father of mercies, through the death and the resurrection of his
Son has reconciled the world to himself and sent the Holy Spirit among us
for the forgiveness of Sins; through the ministry of the Church may God
give you pardon and peace, and I absolve you from your Sins in the name of
the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.
VII. The Acts of the Penitent
1450 "Penance requires . . . the Sinner to endure all things willingly, be
contrite of heart, confess with the lips, and practice complete humility
and fruitful satisfaction."
1451 Among the penitent's acts contrition occupies first place. Contrition
is "sorrow of the soul and detestation for the Sin committed, together
with the resolution not to Sin again."
1452 When it arises from a love by which God is loved above all else,
contrition is called "perfect" (contrition of charity). Such contrition
remits venial Sins; it also obtains forgiveness of mortal Sins if it
includes the firm resolution to have recourse to sacramental confession as
soon as possible.
1453 The contrition called "imperfect" (or "attrition") is also a gift of
God, a prompting of the Holy Spirit. It is born of the consideration of
Sin's ugliness or the fear of eternal damnation and the other penalties
threatening the Sinner (contrition of fear). Such a stirring of conscience
can initiate an interior process which, under the prompting of Grace, will
be brought to completion by sacramental absolution. By itself however,
imperfect contrition cannot obtain the forgiveness of grave Sins, but it
disposes one to obtain forgiveness in the sacrament of Penance.
1454 The reception of this sacrament ought to be prepared for by an
examination of conscience made in the light of the Word of God. The
passages best suited to this can be found in the moral catechesis of the
Gospels and the apostolic Letters, such as the Sermon on the Mount and the
The confession of Sins
1455 The confession (or disclosure) of Sins, even from a simply human
point of view, frees us and facilitates our reconciliation with others.
Through such an admission man looks squarely at the Sins he is guilty of,
takes responsibility for them, and thereby opens himself again to God and
to the communion of the Church in order to make a new future possible.
1456 Confession to a priest is an essential part of the sacrament of
Penance: "All mortal Sins of which penitents after a diligent
self-examination are conscious must be recounted by them in confession,
even if they are most secret and have been committed against the last two
precepts of the Decalogue; for these Sins sometimes wound the soul more
grievously and are more dangerous than those which are committed
When Christ's faithful strive to confess all the Sins that they can
remember, they undoubtedly place all of them before the divine mercy for
pardon. But those who fail to do so and knowingly withhold some, place
nothing before the divine goodness for remission through the mediation of
the priest, "for if the sick person is too ashamed to show his wound to
the doctor, the medicine cannot heal what it does not know."
1457 According to the Church's command, "after having attained the age of
discretion, each of the faithful is bound by an obligation faithfully to
confess serious Sins at least once a year." Anyone who is aware of
having committed a mortal Sin must not receive Holy Communion, even if he
experiences deep contrition, without having first received sacramental
absolution, unless he has a grave reason for receiving Communion and there
is no possibility of going to confession. Children must go to the
sacrament of Penance before receiving Holy Communion for the first
1458 Without being strictly necessary, confession of everyday faults
(venial Sins) is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church.
Indeed the regular confession of our venial Sins helps us form our
conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by
Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more
frequently through this sacrament the gift of the Father's mercy, we are
spurred to be merciful as he is merciful:
Whoever confesses his Sins . . . is already working with God. God indicts
your Sins; if you also indict them, you are joined with God. Man and
Sinner are, so to speak, two realities: when you hear "man" - this is what
God has made; when you hear "Sinner" - this is what man himself has made.
Destroy what you have made, so that God may save what he has made ....
When you begin to abhor what you have made, it is then that your good
works are beginning, Since you are accuSing yourself of your evil works.
The beginning of good works is the confession of evil works. You do the
truth and come to the light.
1459 Many Sins wrong our neighbor. One must do what is possible in order
to repair the harm (e.g., return stolen goods, restore the reputation of
someone slandered, pay compensation for injuries). Simple justice requires
as much. But Sin also injures and weakens the Sinner himself, as well as
his relationships with God and neighbor. Absolution takes away Sin, but it
does not remedy all the disorders Sin has caused. Raised up from Sin,
the Sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something
more to make amends for the Sin: he must "make satisfaction for" or
"expiate" his Sins. This satisfaction is also called "penance."
1460 The penance the confessor imposes must take into account the
penitent's personal situation and must seek his spiritual good. It must
correspond as far as possible with the gravity and nature of the Sins
committed. It can consist of prayer, an offering, works of mercy, service
of neighbor, voluntary self-denial, sacrifices, and above all the patient
acceptance of the cross we must bear. Such penances help configure us to
Christ, who alone expiated our Sins once for all. They allow us to become
co-heirs with the risen Christ, "provided we suffer with him."
The satisfaction that we make for our Sins, however, is not so much ours
as though it were not done through Jesus Christ. We who can do nothing
ourselves, as if just by ourselves, can do all things with the cooperation
of "him who strengthens" us. Thus man has nothing of which to boast, but
all our boasting is in Christ . . . in whom we make satisfaction by
bringing forth "fruits that befit repentance." These fruits have their
efficacy from him, by him they are offered to the Father, and through him
they are accepted by the Father.
VIII. The Minister of this Sacrament
1461 Since Christ entrusted to his apostles the ministry of
reconciliation, bishops who are their successors, and priests, the
bishops' collaborators, continue to exercise this ministry. Indeed bishops
and priests, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, have the power to
forgive all Sins "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
1462 Forgiveness of Sins brings reconciliation with God, but also with the
Church. Since ancient times the bishop, visible head of a particular
Church, has thus rightfully been considered to be the one who principally
has the power and ministry of reconciliation: he is the moderator of the
penitential discipline. Priests, his collaborators, exercise it to the
extent that they have received the commission either from their bishop (or
religious superior) or the Pope, according to the law of the Church.
1463 Certain particularly grave Sins incur excommunication, the most
severe ecclesiastical penalty, which impedes the reception of the
sacraments and the exercise of certain ecclesiastical acts, and for which
absolution consequently cannot be granted, according to canon law, except
by the Pope, the bishop of the place or priests authorized by them. In
danger of death any priest, even if deprived of faculties for hearing
confessions, can absolve from every Sin and excommunication.
1464 Priests must encourage the faithful to come to the sacrament of
Penance and must make themselves available to celebrate this sacrament
each time Christians reasonably ask for it.
1465 When he celebrates the sacrament of Penance, the priest is fulfilling
the ministry of the Good Shepherd who seeks the lost sheep, of the Good
Samaritan who binds up wounds, of the Father who awaits the prodigal son
and welcomes him on his return, and of the just and impartial judge whose
judgment is both just and merciful. The priest is the sign and the
instrument of God's merciful love for the Sinner.
1466 The confessor is not the master of God's forgiveness, but its
servant. The Minister of this Sacrament should unite himself to the
intention and charity of Christ. He should have a proven knowledge of
Christian behavior, experience of human affairs, respect and sensitivity
toward the one who has fallen; he must love the truth, be faithful to the
Magisterium of the Church, and lead the penitent with patience toward
healing and full maturity. He must pray and do penance for his penitent,
entrusting him to the Lord's mercy.
1467 Given the delicacy and greatness of this ministry and the respect due
to persons, the Church declares that every priest who hears confessions is
bound under very severe penalties to keep absolute secrecy regarding the
Sins that his penitents have confessed to him. He can make no use of
knowledge that confession gives him about penitents' lives. This
secret, which admits of no exceptions, is called the "sacramental seal,"
because what the penitent has made known to the priest remains "sealed" by
IX. The Effects of this Sacrament
1468 "The whole power of the sacrament of Penance consists in restoring us
to God's Grace and joining us with him in an intimate friendship."
Reconciliation with God is thus the purpose and effect of this sacrament.
For those who receive the sacrament of Penance with contrite heart and
religious disposition, reconciliation "is usually followed by peace and
serenity of conscience with strong spiritual consolation." Indeed the
sacrament of Reconciliation with God brings about a true "spiritual
resurrection," restoration of the dignity and blesSings of the life of the
children of God, of which the most precious is friendship with God.
1469 This sacrament reconciles us with the Church. Sin damages or even
breaks fraternal communion. The sacrament of Penance repairs or restores
it. In this sense it does not simply heal the one restored to ecclesial
communion, but has also a revitalizing effect on the life of the Church
which suffered from the Sin of one of her members. Re-established or
strengthened in the communion of saints, the Sinner is made stronger by
the exchange of spiritual goods among all the living members of the Body
of Christ, whether still on pilgrimage or already in the heavenly
It must be recalled that . . . this reconciliation with God leads, as it
were, to other reconciliations, which repair the other breaches caused by
Sin. The forgiven penitent is reconciled with himself in his inmost being,
where he regains his innermost truth. He is reconciled with his brethren
whom he has in some way offended and wounded. He is reconciled with the
Church. He is reconciled with all creation.
1470 In this sacrament, the Sinner, placing himself before the merciful
judgment of God, anticipates in a certain way the judgment to which he
will be subjected at the end of his earthly life. For it is now, in this
life, that we are offered the choice between life and death, and it is
only by the road of conversion that we can enter the Kingdom, from which
one is excluded by grave Sin. In converting to Christ through penance
and faith, the Sinner passes from death to life and "does not come into
1471 The doctrine and practice of Indulgences in the Church are closely
linked to the effects of the sacrament of Penance.
What is an indulgence?
"An indulgence is a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to
Sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian
who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the
action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses and
applies with Authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the
"An indulgence is partial or plenary according as it removes either part
or all of the temporal punishment due to Sin." Indulgences may be
applied to the living or the dead.
The punishments of Sin
1472 To understand this doctrine and practice of the Church, it is
necessary to understand that Sin has a double consequence. Grave Sin
deprives us of communion with God and therefore makes us incapable of
eternal life, the privation of which is called the "eternal punishment" of
Sin. On the other hand every Sin, even venial, entails an unhealthy
attachment to creatures, which must be purified either here on earth, or
after death in the state called Purgatory. This purification frees one
from what is called the "temporal punishment" of Sin. These two
punishments must not be conceived of as a kind of vengeance inflicted by
God from without, but as following from the very nature of Sin. A
conversion which proceeds from a fervent charity can attain the complete
purification of the Sinner in such a way that no punishment would
1473 The forgiveness of Sin and restoration of communion with God entail
the remission of the eternal punishment of Sin, but temporal punishment of
Sin remains. While patiently bearing sufferings and trials of all kinds
and, when the day comes, serenely facing death, the Christian must strive
to accept this temporal punishment of Sin as a Grace. He should strive by
works of mercy and charity, as well as by prayer and the various practices
of penance, to put off completely the "old man" and to put on the "new
In the Communion of Saints
1474 The Christian who seeks to purify himself of his Sin and to become
holy with the help of God's Grace is not alone. "The life of each of God's
children is joined in Christ and through Christ in a wonderful way to the
life of all the other Christian brethren in the supernatural unity of the
Mystical Body of Christ, as in a Single mystical person."
1475 In the communion of saints, "a perennial link of charity exists
between the faithful who have already reached their heavenly home, those
who are expiating their Sins in purgatory and those who are still pilgrims
on earth. between them there is, too, an abundant exchange of all good
things." In this wonderful exchange, the holiness of one profits
others, well beyond the harm that the Sin of one could cause others. Thus
recourse to the communion of saints lets the contrite Sinner be more
promptly and efficaciously purified of the punishments for Sin.
1476 We also call these spiritual goods of the communion of saints the
Church's treasury, which is "not the sum total of the material goods which
have accumulated during the course of the centuries. On the contrary the
'treasury of the Church' is the infinite value, which can never be
exhausted, which Christ's Merits have before God. They were offered so
that the whole of mankind could be set free from Sin and attain communion
with the Father. In Christ, the Redeemer himself, the satisfactions and
Merits of his Redemption exist and find their effficacy."
1477 "This treasury includes as well the prayers and good works of the
Blessed Virgin Mary. They are truly immense, unfathomable, and even
pristine in their value before God. In the treasury, too, are the prayers
and good works of all the saints, all those who have followed in the
footsteps of Christ the Lord and by his Grace have made their lives holy
and carried out the mission the Father entrusted to them. In this way they
attained their own salvation and at the same time cooperated in saving
their brothers in the unity of the Mystical Body."
Obtaining indulgence from God through the Church
1478 An indulgence is obtained through the Church who, by virtue of the
power of binding and looSing granted her by Christ Jesus, intervenes in
favor of individual Christians and opens for them the treasury of the
Merits of Christ and the saints to obtain from the Father of mercies the
remission of the temporal punishments due for their Sins. Thus the Church
does not want simply to come to the aid of these Christians, but also to
spur them to works of devotion, penance, and charity.
1479 Since the faithful departed now being purified are also members of
the same communion of saints, one way we can help them is to obtain
Indulgences for them, so that the temporal punishments due for their Sins
may be remitted.
XI. The Celebration of the Sacrament of Penance
1480 Like all the sacraments, Penance is a liturgical action. The elements
of the celebration are ordinarily these: a greeting and blesSing from the
priest, reading the word of God to illuminate the conscience and elicit
contrition, and an exhortation to repentance; the confession, which
acknowledges Sins and makes them known to the priest; the imposition and
acceptance of a penance; the priest's absolution; a prayer of thanksgiving
and praise and dismissal with the blesSing of the priest.
1481 The Byzantine Liturgy recognizes several formulas of absolution, in
the form of invocation, which admirably express the mystery of
forgiveness: "May the same God, who through the Prophet Nathan forgave
David when he confessed his Sins, who forgave Peter when he wept bitterly,
the prostitute when she washed his feet with her tears, the Pharisee, and
the prodigal son, through me, a Sinner, forgive you both in this life and
in the next and enable you to appear before his awe-inspiring tribunal
without condemnation, he who is blessed for ever and ever. Amen."
1482 The sacrament of Penance can also take place in the framework of a
communal celebration in which we prepare ourselves together for confession
and give thanks together for the forgiveness received. Here, the personal
confession of Sins and individual absolution are inserted into a liturgy
of the word of God with readings and a homily, an examination of
conscience conducted in common, a communal request for forgiveness, the
Our Father and a thanksgiving in common. This communal celebration
expresses more clearly the ecclesial character of penance. However,
regardless of its manner of celebration the sacrament of Penance is
always, by its very nature, a liturgical action, and therefore an
ecclesial and public action.
1483 In case of grave necessity recourse may be had to a communal
celebration of reconciliation with general confession and general
absolution. Grave necessity of this sort can arise when there is imminent
danger of death without sufficient time for the priest or priests to hear
each penitent's confession. Grave necessity can also exist when, given the
number of penitents, there are not enough confessors to hear individual
confessions properly in a reasonable time, so that the penitents through
no fault of their own would be deprived of sacramental Grace or Holy
Communion for a long time. In this case, for the absolution to be valid
the faithful must have the intention of individually confesSing their Sins
in the time required. The diocesan bishop is the judge of whether or
not the conditions required for general absolution exist. A large
gathering of the faithful on the occasion of major feasts or pilgrimages
does not constitute a case of grave necessity.
1484 "Individual, integral confession and absolution remain the only
ordinary way for the faithful to reconcile themselves with God and the
Church, unless physical or moral impossibility excuses from this kind of
confession." There are profound reasons for this. Christ is at work in
each of the sacraments. He personally addresses every Sinner: "My son,
your Sins are forgiven." He is the physician tending each one of the
sick who need him to cure them. He raises them up and reintegrates
them into fraternal communion. Personal confession is thus the form most
expressive of reconciliation with God and with the Church.
1485 "On the evening of that day, the first day of the week," Jesus showed
himself to his apostles. "He breathed on them, and said to them: 'Receive
the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the Sins of any, they are forgiven; if you
retain the Sins of any, they are retained"' (Jn 20:19, 22-23).
1486 The forgiveness of Sins committed after Baptism is conferred by a
particular sacrament called the sacrament of conversion, confession,
penance, or reconciliation.
1487 The Sinner wounds God's honor and love, his own human dignity as a
man called to be a son of God, and the spiritual well-being of the Church,
of which each Christian ought to be a living stone.
1488 To the eyes of faith no evil is graver than Sin and nothing has worse
consequences for Sinners themselves, for the Church, and for the whole
1489 To return to communion with God after having lost it through Sin is a
process born of the Grace of God who is rich in mercy and solicitous for
the salvation of men. One must ask for this precious gift for oneself and
1490 The movement of return to God, called conversion and repentance,
entails sorrow for and abhorrence of Sins committed, and the firm purpose
of Sinning no more in the future. Conversion touches the past and the
future and is nourished by hope in God's mercy.
1491 The sacrament of Penance is a whole consisting in three actions of
the penitent and the priest's absolution. The penitent's acts are
repentance, confession or disclosure of Sins to the priest, and the
intention to make reparation and do works of reparation.
1492 Repentance (also called contrition) must be inspired by motives that
arise from faith. If repentance arises from love of charity for God, it is
called "perfect" contrition; if it is founded on other motives, it is
1493 One who desires to obtain reconciliation with God and with the
Church, must confess to a priest all the unconfessed grave Sins he
remembers after having carefully examined his conscience. The confession
of venial faults, without being necessary in itself, is nevertheless
strongly recommended by the Church.
1494 The confessor proposes the performance of certain acts of
"satisfaction" or "penance" to be performed by the penitent in order to
repair the harm caused by Sin and to re-establish habits befitting a
disciple of Christ.
1495 Only priests who have received the faculty of absolving from the
Authority of the Church can forgive Sins in the name of Christ.
1496 The spiritual effects of the sacrament of Penance are:
- reconciliation with God by which the penitent recovers Grace;
- reconciliation with the Church;
- remission of the eternal punishment incurred by mortal Sins;
- remission, at least in part, of temporal punishments resulting from Sin;
- peace and serenity of conscience, and spiritual consolation;
- an increase of spiritual strength for the Christian battle.
1497 Individual and integral confession of grave Sins followed by
absolution remains the only ordinary means of reconciliation with God and
with the Church.
1498 Through Indulgences the faithful can obtain the remission of temporal
punishment resulting from Sin for themselves and also for the souls in
Article Five: The Anointing of the Sick
1499 "By the sacred anointing of the sick and the prayer of the priests
the whole Church commends those who are ill to the suffering and glorified
Lord, that he may raise them up and save them. And indeed she exhorts them
to contribute to the good of the People of God by freely uniting
themselves to the Passion and death of Christ."
I. Its Foundations in the Economy of Salvation
Illness in human life
1500 Illness and suffering have always been among the gravest problems
confronted in human life. In illness, man experiences his powerlessness,
his limitations, and his finitude. Every illness can make us glimpse
1501 Illness can lead to anguish, self-absorption, sometimes even despair
and revolt against God. It can also make a person more mature, helping him
discern in his life what is not essential so that he can turn toward that
which is. Very often illness provokes a search for God and a return to
The sick person before God
1502 The man of the Old Testament lives his sickness in the presence of
God. It is before God that he laments his illness, and it is of God,
Master of life and death, that he implores healing. Illness becomes a
way to conversion; God's forgiveness initiates the healing. It is the
experience of Israel that illness is mysteriously linked to Sin and evil,
and that faithfulness to God according to his law restores life: "For I am
the Lord, your healer." The prophet intuits that suffering can also
have a redemptive meaning for the Sins of others. Finally Isaiah
announces that God will usher in a time for Zion when he will pardon every
offense and heal every illness.
Christ the physician
1503 Christ's compassion toward the sick and his many healings of every
kind of infirmity are a resplendent sign that "God has visited his
people" and that the Kingdom of God is close at hand. Jesus has the
power not only to heal, but also to forgive Sins; he has come to heal
the whole man, soul and body; he is the physician the sick have need
of. His compassion toward all who suffer goes so far that he
identifies himself with them: "I was sick and you visited me." His
preferential love for the sick has not ceased through the centuries to
draw the very special attention of Christians toward all those who suffer
in body and soul. It is the source of tireless efforts to comfort them.
1504 Often Jesus asks the sick to believe. He makes use of signs to
heal: spittle and the laying on of hands, mud and washing. The
sick try to touch him, "for power came forth from him and healed them
all." And so in the sacraments Christ continues to "touch" us in
order to heal us.
1505 Moved by so much suffering Christ not only allows himself to be
touched by the sick, but he makes their miseries his own: "He took our
infirmities and bore our diseases." But he did not heal all the sick.
His healings were signs of the coming of the Kingdom of God. They
announced a more radical healing: the victory over Sin and death through
his Passover. On the cross Christ took upon himself the whole weight of
evil and took away the "Sin of the world," of which illness is only a
consequence. By his passion and death on the cross Christ has given a new
meaning to suffering: it can henceforth configure us to him and unite us
with his redemptive Passion.
"Heal the sick . . ."
1506 Christ invites his disciples to follow him by taking up their cross
in their turn. By following him they acquire a new outlook on illness
and the sick. Jesus associates them with his own life of poverty and
service. He makes them share in his ministry of compassion and healing:
"So they went out and preached that men should repent. And they cast out
many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed
1507 The risen Lord renews this mission ("In my name . . . they will lay
their hands on the sick, and they will recover.") and confirms it
through the signs that the Church performs by invoking his name.
These signs demonstrate in a special way that Jesus is truly "God who
1508 The Holy Spirit gives to some a special charism of healing so as
to make manifest the power of the Grace of the risen Lord. But even the
most intense prayers do not always obtain the healing of all illnesses.
Thus St. Paul must learn from the Lord that "my Grace is sufficient for
you, for my power is made perfect in weakness," and that the sufferings to
be endured can mean that "in my flesh I complete what is lacking in
Christ's afflictions for the sake of his Body, that is, the Church."
1509 "Heal the sick!" The Church has received this charge from the
Lord and strives to carry it out by taking care of the sick as well as by
accompanying them with her prayer of intercession. She believes in the
life-giving presence of Christ, the physician of souls and bodies. This
presence is particularly active through the sacraments, and in an
altogether special way through the Eucharist, the bread that gives eternal
life and that St. Paul suggests is connected with bodily health.
1510 However, the apostolic Church has its own rite for the sick, attested
to by St. James: "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders
[presbyters] of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with
oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick
man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed Sins, he will
be forgiven." Tradition has recognized in this rite one of the seven
A sacrament of the sick
1511 The Church believes and confesses that among the seven sacraments
there is one especially intended to strengthen those who are being tried
by illness, the Anointing of the Sick:
This sacred anointing of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord as a
true and proper sacrament of the New Testament. It is alluded to indeed by
Mark, but is recommended to the faithful and promulgated by James the
apostle and brother of the Lord.
1512 From ancient times in the liturgical traditions of both East and
West, we have testimonies to the practice of anointings of the sick with
blessed oil. Over the centuries the Anointing of the Sick was conferred
more and more exclusively on those at the point of death. Because of this
it received the name "Extreme Unction." Notwithstanding this evolution the
liturgy has never failed to beg the Lord that the sick person may recover
his health if it would be conducive to his salvation.
1513 The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum,
following upon the Second Vatican Council, established that
henceforth, in the Roman Rite, the following be observed:
The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is given to those who are seriously
ill by anointing them on the forehead and hands with duly blessed oil -
pressed from olives or from other plants - saying, only once: "Through
this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the
Grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from Sin save you and
raise you up."
II. Who Receives and Who Administers this Sacrament?
In case of grave illness . . .
1514 The Anointing of the Sick "is not a sacrament for those only who are
at the point of death. Hence, as soon as anyone of the faithful begins to
be in danger of death from sickness or old age, the fitting time for him
to receive this sacrament has certainly already arrived."
1515 If a sick person who received this anointing recovers his health, he
can in the case of another grave illness receive this sacrament again. If
during the same illness the person's condition becomes more serious, the
sacrament may be repeated. It is fitting to receive the Anointing of the
Sick just prior to a serious operation. The same holds for the elderly
whose frailty becomes more pronounced.
" . . . let him call for the presbyters of the Church"
1516 Only priests (bishops and presbyters) are ministers of the Anointing
of the Sick. It is the duty of pastors to instruct the faithful on
the benefits of this sacrament. The faithful should encourage the sick to
call for a priest to receive this sacrament. The sick should prepare
themselves to receive it with good dispositions, assisted by their pastor
and the whole ecclesial community, which is invited to surround the sick
in a special way through their prayers and fraternal attention.
III. How is this Sacrament Celebrated?
1517 Like all the sacraments the Anointing of the Sick is a liturgical and
communal celebration, whether it takes place in the family home, a
hospital or church, for a Single sick person or a whole group of sick
persons. It is very fitting to celebrate it within the Eucharist, the
memorial of the Lord's Passover. If circumstances suggest it, the
celebration of the sacrament can be preceded by the sacrament of Penance
and followed by the sacrament of the Eucharist. As the sacrament of
Christ's Passover the Eucharist should always be the last sacrament of the
earthly journey, the "viaticum" for "pasSing over" to eternal life.
1518 Word and sacrament form an indivisible whole. The Liturgy of the
Word, preceded by an act of repentance, opens the celebration. The words
of Christ, the witness of the apostles, awaken the faith of the sick
person and of the community to ask the Lord for the strength of his
1519 The celebration of the sacrament includes the following principal
elements: the "priests of the Church" - in silence - lay hands on the
sick; they pray over them in the faith of the Church - this is the
epiclesis proper to this sacrament; they then anoint them with oil
blessed, if possible, by the bishop.
These liturgical actions indicate what Grace this sacrament confers upon
IV. The Effects of The Celebration of this Sacrament
1520 A particular gift of the Holy Spirit. The first Grace of this
sacrament is one of strengthening, peace and courage to overcome the
difficulties that go with the condition of serious illness or the frailty
of old age. This Grace is a gift of the Holy Spirit, who renews trust and
faith in God and strengthens against the temptations of the evil one, the
temptation to discouragement and anguish in the face of death. This
assistance from the Lord by the power of his Spirit is meant to lead the
sick person to healing of the soul, but also of the body if such is God's
will. Furthermore, "if he has committed Sins, he will be
1521 Union with the passion of Christ. By the Grace of this sacrament the
sick person receives the strength and the gift of uniting himself more
closely to Christ's Passion: in a certain way he is consecrated to bear
fruit by configuration to the Savior's redemptive Passion. Suffering, a
consequence of original Sin, acquires a new meaning; it becomes a
participation in the saving work of Jesus.
1522 An ecclesial Grace. The sick who receive this sacrament, "by freely
uniting themselves to the passion and death of Christ," "contribute to the
good of the People of God." By celebrating this sacrament the Church,
in the communion of saints, intercedes for the benefit of the sick person,
and he, for his part, though the Grace of this sacrament, contributes to
the sanctification of the Church and to the good of all men for whom the
Church suffers and offers herself through Christ to God the Father.
1523 A preparation for the final journey. If the sacrament of anointing of
the sick is given to all who suffer from serious illness and infirmity,
even more rightly is it given to those at the point of departing this
life; so it is also called sacramentum exeuntium (the sacrament of those
departing). The Anointing of the Sick completes our conformity to the
death and Resurrection of Christ, just as Baptism began it. It completes
the holy anointings that mark the whole Christian life: that of Baptism
which sealed the new life in us, and that of Confirmation which
strengthened us for the combat of this life. This last anointing fortifies
the end of our earthly life like a solid rampart for the final struggles
before entering the Father's house.
V. Viaticum, the Last Sacrament of the Christian
1524 In addition to the Anointing of the Sick, the Church offers those who
are about to leave this life the Eucharist as viaticum. Communion in the
body and blood of Christ, received at this moment of "pasSing over" to the
Father, has a particular significance and importance. It is the seed of
eternal life and the power of resurrection, according to the words of the
Lord: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I
will raise him up at the last day." The sacrament of Christ once dead
and now risen, the Eucharist is here the sacrament of pasSing over from
death to life, from this world to the Father.
1525 Thus, just as the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and the
Eucharist form a unity called "The Sacraments of Christian Initiation," so
too it can be said that Penance, the Anointing of the Sick and the
Eucharist as viaticum constitute at the end of Christian life "the
sacraments that prepare for our heavenly homeland" or the sacraments that
complete the earthly pilgrimage.
1526 "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the presbyters of the
Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of
the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord
will raise him up; and if he has committed Sins, he will be forgiven" (Jas
1527 The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has as its purpose the
conferral of a special Grace on the Christian experiencing the
difficulties inherent in the condition of grave illness or old age.
1528 The proper time for receiving this holy anointing has certainly
arrived when the believer begins to be in danger of death because of
illness or old age.
1529 Each time a Christian falls seriously ill, he may receive the
Anointing of the Sick, and also when, after he has received it, the
1530 Only priests (presbyters and bishops) can give the sacrament of the
Anointing of the Sick, uSing oil blessed by the bishop, or if necessary by
the celebrating presbyter himself.
1531 The celebration of the Anointing of the Sick consists essentially in
the anointing of the forehead and hands of the sick person (in the Roman
Rite) or of other parts of the body (in the Eastern rite), the anointing
being accompanied by the liturgical prayer of the celebrant asking for the
special Grace of this sacrament.
1532 The special Grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has
as its effects:
- the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own
good and that of the whole Church;
- the strengthening, peace, and courage to endure in a Christian manner
the sufferings of illness or old age;
- the forgiveness of Sins, if the sick person was not able to obtain it
through the sacrament of Penance;
- the restoration of health, if it is conducive to the salvation of his
- the preparation for pasSing over to eternal life.
2 Cor 4:7; Col 3:3.
2 Cor 5:1.
Cf. Mk 2:1-12.
LG 11 # 2.
Cf. Mk 1:15; Lk 15:18.
OP 46 formula of absolution.
2 Cor 5:20.
1 Cor 6:11.
1 Jn 1:8.
Cf. Lk 11:4; Mt 6:12.
Eph 1:4; 5:27.
Cf. Council of Trent (1546) DS 1515.
Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545; LG 40.
Cf. Acts 2:38.
LG 8 # 3.
Ps 51:17; cf. Jn 6:44; 12:32; 1 Jn 4:10.
Cf. Lk 22:61; Jn 21:15-17.
Rev 2:5, 16.
St. Ambrose, ep. 41, 12: PL 16, 1116.
Cf. Joel 2:12-13; Isa 1:16-17; Mt 6:1-6; 16-18.
Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1676-1678; 1705; Cf. Roman Catechism,
II, V, 4.
Cf. Ezek 36:26-27.
Cf. Jn 19:37; Zech 12:10.
St. Clement Of Rome, Ad Cor. 7, 4 PG 1, 224.
Cf. Jn 16:8-9.
Cf. Jn 15:26; Acts 2:36-38; John Paul II, DeV 27-48.
Cf. Tob 12:8; Mt 6:1-18.
1 Pet 4:8; Cf. Jas 5:20.
Cf. Am 5:24; Isa 1:17.
Cf. Lk 9:23.
Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1638.
Cf. SC 109-110; CIC, cann. 1249-1253; CCEO, Cann. 880-883.
Cf. Lk 15:11-24.
Cf. LG 11.
Cf. Mk 2:7.
Mk 2:5, 10; Lk 7:48.
Cf. Jn 20:21-23.
2 Cor 5:18.
2 Cor 5:20.
Cf. Lk 15; 19:9.
Mt 16:19; cf. Mt 18:18; 28:16-20.
LG 22 # 2.
Tertullian, De Paenit. 4, 2: PL 1,1343; cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS
OP 46: formula of absolution.
Roman Catechism II, V, 21; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1673.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1676.
Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1677.
Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1678; 1705.
Cf. Mt 5-7; Rom 12-15; 1 Cor 12-13; Gal 5; Eph 4-6; etc.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. Ex 20:17; Mt 5:28.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. St. Jerome, In Eccl.
10, 11: PL 23:1096.
Cf. CIC, Can. 989; Council of Trent (1551): DS 1683; DS 1708.
Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1647; 1661; CIC, can. 916; CCEO, can.
Cf. CIC, can. 914.
Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1680; CIC, can. 988 # 2.
Cf. Lk 6:36.
St. Augustine, In Jo. ev. 12, 13: PL 35, 1491.
Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712.
Rom 8:17; Rom 3:25; 1 Jn 2:1-2; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1690.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1691; cf. Phil 4:13; 1 Cor 1:31; 2 Cor
10:17; Gal 6:14; Lk 3:8.
Cf. In 20:23; 2 Cor 5:18.
Cf. LG 26 # 3.
Cf. CIC cann. 844; 967-969; 972; CCEO, can. 722 ## 3-4.
Cf. CIC, cann. 1331; 1354-1357; CCEO, can. 1431; 1434; 1420.
Cf. CIC, can. 976; CCEO, can. 725.
Cf. CIC, can. 486; CCEO, can. 735; PO 13.
Cf. PO 13.
Cf. CIC, can. 1388 # 1; CCEO, can. 1456.
Roman Catechism, II, V, 18.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1674.
Cf. Lk 15:32.
Cf. 1 Cor 12:26.
Cf. LG 48-50.
John Paul II, RP 31, 5.
Cf. 1 Cor 5:11; Gal 5:19-21; Rev 22:15.
Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 1.
Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 2; Cf. Norm 3.
Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712-1713; (1563): 1820.
Eph 4:22, 24.
Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.
Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.
Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.
Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.
Cf. Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.
Cf. SC 26-27.
Cf. CIC, can. 962 #1.
Cf. CIC, can. 961 # 2.
Cf. CIC, can. 961 # 1.
Cf. Mk 2:17.
LG 11; cf. Jas 5:14-16; Rom 8:17; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 2:11-12; 1 Pet 4:13.
Cf. Pss 6:3; 38; Isa 38.
Cf. Pss 32:5; 38:5; 39:9, 12; 107:20; cf. Mk 2:5-12.
Cf. Isa 53:11.
Cf. Isa 33:24.
Lk 7:16; cf. Mt 4:24.
Cf. Mk 2:5-12.
Cf. Mk 2:17.
Cf. Mk 5:34, 36; 9:23.
Cf. Mk 7:32-36; 8:22-25.
Cf. Jn 9:6-7.
Lk 6:19; cf. Mk 1:41; 3:10; 6:56.
Mt 8:17; cf. Isa 53:4.
Jn 1:29; cf. Isa 53:4-6.
Cf. Mt 10:38.
Cf. Acts 9:34; 14:3.
Cf. Mt 1:21; Acts 4:12.
Cf. 1 Cor 12:9, 28, 30.
2 Cor 12:9; Col 1:24.
Cf. Jn 6:54, 58; 1 Cor 11:30.
Cf. Council of Constantinople II (553) DS 216; Council Of Florence
(1439) 1324- 1325; Council Of Trent (1551) 1695-1696; 1716-1717.
Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1695; cf. Mk 6:13; Jas 5:14-15.
Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1696.
Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November
Cf. SC 73.
Cf. CIC, Can. 847 # 1.
SC 73; cf. CIC, Cann. 1004 # 1; 1005; 1007; CCEO, Can. 738.
Cf. Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1697; 1719; CIC, Can. 1003; CCEO, Can.
739 # 1.
Cf. SC 27.
Cf. Jas 5:15.
Cf. Heb 2:15.
Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1325.
Jas 515; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1717.
LG 11 # 2.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1698.
Council of Trent (1551): DS 1694.
Cf. Jn 13:1.