Declaration on Religious Freedom (Dignitatis Humanae)
Declaration on Religious Freedom (Dignitatis Humanae) on the right of the person and of communities to social and civil freedom in matters religious promulgated by His holiness Pope Paul VI on December 7, 1965
1. A sense of the dignity of the human person has been impressing itself
more and more deeply on the consciousness of contemporary man,(1) and the
demand is increasingly made that men should act on their own judgment, enjoying
and making use of a responsible freedom, not driven by coercion but motivated
by a sense of duty. The demand is likewise made that constitutional limits
should be set to the powers of government, in order that there may be no
encroachment on the rightful freedom of the person and of associations. This
demand for freedom in human society chiefly regards the quest for the values
proper to the human spirit. It regards, in the first place, the free exercise
of religion in society. This Vatican Council takes careful note of these
desires in the minds of men. It proposes to declare them to be greatly in
accord with truth and justice. To this end, it searches into the sacred
tradition and doctrine of the Church-the treasury out of which the Church
continually brings forth new things that are in harmony with the things that
First, the council professes its belief that God Himself has made known to
mankind the way in which men are to serve Him, and thus be saved in Christ and
come to blessedness. We believe that this one true religion subsists in the
Catholic and Apostolic Church, to which the Lord Jesus committed the duty of
spreading it abroad among all men. Thus He spoke to the Apostles: "Go,
therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all
things whatsoever I have enjoined upon you" (Matt. 28: 19-20). On their
part, all men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and
His Church, and to embrace the truth they come to know, and to hold fast to it.
This Vatican Council likewise professes its belief that it is upon the
human conscience that these obligations fall and exert their binding force. The
truth cannot impose itself except by virtue of its own truth, as it makes its
entrance into the mind at once quietly and with power.
Religious freedom, in turn, which men demand as necessary to fulfill their
duty to worship God, has to do with immunity from coercion in civil society.
Therefore it leaves untouched traditional Catholic doctrine on the moral duty
of men and societies toward the true religion and toward the one Church of
Over and above all this, the council intends to develop the doctrine of
recent popes on the inviolable rights of the human person and the
constitutional order of society.
2. This Vatican Council declares that the human person has a right to
religious freedom. This freedom means that all men are to be immune from
coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power,
in such wise that no one is to be forced to act in a manner contrary to his own
beliefs, whether privately or publicly, whether alone or in association with
others, within due limits.
The council further declares that the right to religious freedom has its
foundation in the very dignity of the human person as this dignity is known
through the revealed word of God and by reason itself.(2) This right of the
human person to religious freedom is to be recognized in the constitutional law
whereby society is governed and thus it is to become a civil right.
It is in accordance with their dignity as persons-that is, beings endowed
with reason and free will and therefore privileged to bear personal
responsibility-that all men should be at once impelled by nature and also bound
by a moral obligation to seek the truth, especially religious truth. They are
also bound to adhere to the truth, once it is known, and to order their whole
lives in accord with the demands of truth However, men cannot discharge these
obligations in a manner in keeping with their own nature unless they enjoy
immunity from external coercion as well as psychological freedom. Therefore the
right to religious freedom has its foundation not in the subjective disposition
of the person, but in his very nature. In consequence, the right to this
immunity continues to exist even in those who do not live up to their
obligation of seeking the truth and adhering to it and the exercise of this
right is not to be impeded, provided that just public order be observed.
3. Further light is shed on the subject if one considers that the highest
norm of human life is the divine law-eternal, objective and universal-whereby
God orders, directs and governs the entire universe and all the ways of the
human community by a plan conceived in wisdom and love. Man has been made by
God to participate in this law, with the result that, under the gentle
disposition of divine Providence, he can come to perceive ever more fully the
truth that is unchanging. Wherefore every man has the duty, and therefore the
right, to seek the truth in matters religious in order that he may with
prudence form for himself right and true judgments of conscience, under use of
all suitable means.
Truth, however, is to be sought after in a manner proper to the dignity of
the human person and his social nature. The inquiry is to be free, carried on
with the aid of teaching or instruction, communication and dialogue, in the
course of which men explain to one another the truth they have discovered, or
think they have discovered, in order thus to assist one another in the quest
Moreover, as the truth is discovered, it is by a personal assent that men
are to adhere to it.
On his part, man perceives and acknowledges the imperatives of the divine
law through the mediation of conscience. In all his activity a man is bound to
follow his conscience in order that he may come to God, the end and purpose of
life. It follows that he is not to be forced to act in manner contrary to his
conscience. Nor, on the other hand, is he to be restrained from acting in
accordance with his conscience, especially in matters religious. The reason is
that the exercise of religion, of its very nature, consists before all else in
those internal, voluntary and free acts whereby man sets the course of his
life directly toward God. No merely human power can either command or prohibit
acts of this kind.(3) The social nature of man, however, itself requires that
he should give external expression to his internal acts of religion: that he
should share with others in matters religious; that he should profess his
religion in community. Injury therefore is done to the human person and to the
very order established by God for human life, if the free exercise of religion
is denied in society, provided just public order is observed.
There is a further consideration. The religious acts whereby men, in
private and in public and out of a sense of personal conviction, direct their
lives to God transcend by their very nature the order of terrestrial and
temporal affairs. Government therefore ought indeed to take account of the
religious life of the citizenry and show it favor, since the function of
government is to make provision for the common welfare. However, it would
clearly transgress the limits set to its power, were it to presume to command
or inhibit acts that are religious.
4. The freedom or immunity from coercion in matters religious which is the
endowment of persons as individuals is also to be recognized as their right
when they act in community. Religious communities are a requirement of the
social nature both of man and of religion itself.
Provided the just demands of public order are observed, religious
communities rightfully claim freedom in order that they may govern themselves
according to their own norms, honor the Supreme Being in public worship, assist
their members in the practice of the religious life, strengthen them by
instruction, and promote institutions in which they may join together for the
purpose of ordering their own lives in accordance with their religious
Religious communities also have the right not to be hindered, either by
legal measures or by administrative action on the part of government, in the
selection, training, appointment, and transferral of their own ministers, in
communicating with religious authorities and communities abroad, in erecting
buildings for religious purposes, and in the acquisition and use of suitable
funds or properties.
Religious communities also have the right not to be hindered in their
public teaching and witness to their faith, whether by the spoken or by the
written word. However, in spreading religious faith and in introducing
religious practices everyone ought at all times to refrain from any manner of
action which might seem to carry a hint of coercion or of a kind of persuasion
that would be dishonorable or unworthy, especially when dealing with poor or
uneducated people. Such a manner of action would have to be considered an abuse
of one's right and a violation of the right of others.
In addition, it comes within the meaning of religious freedom that
religious communities should not be prohibited from freely undertaking to show
the special value of their doctrine in what concerns the organization of
society and the inspiration of the whole of human activity. Finally, the social
nature of man and the very nature of religion afford the foundation of the
right of men freely to hold meetings and to establish educational, cultural,
charitable and social organizations, under the impulse of their own religious
5. The family, since it is a society in its own original right, has the
right freely to live its own domestic religious life under the guidance of
parents. Parents, moreover, have the right to determine, in accordance with
their own religious beliefs, the kind of religious education that their
children are to receive. Government, in consequence, must acknowledge the right
of parents to make a genuinely free choice of schools and of other means of
education, and the use of this freedom of choice is not to be made a reason for
imposing unjust burdens on parents, whether directly or indirectly. Besides,
the right of parents are violated, if their children are forced to attend
lessons or instructions which are not in agreement with their religious
beliefs, or if a single system of education, from which all religious formation
is excluded, is imposed upon all.
6. Since the common welfare of society consists in the entirety of those
conditions of social life under which men enjoy the possibility of achieving
their own perfection in a certain fullness of measure and also with some
relative ease, it chiefly consists in the protection of the rights, and in the
performance of the duties, of the human person.(4) Therefore the care of the
right to religious freedom devolves upon the whole citizenry, upon social
groups, upon government, and upon the Church and other religious communities,
in virtue of the duty of all toward the common welfare, and in the manner
proper to each.
The protection and promotion of the inviolable rights of man ranks among
the essential duties of government.(5) Therefore government is to assume the
safeguard of the religious freedom of all its citizens, in an effective manner,
by just laws and by other appropriate means.
Government is also to help create conditions favorable to the fostering of
religious life, in order that the people may be truly enabled to exercise their
religious rights and to fulfill their religious duties, and also in order that
society itself may profit by the moral qualities of justice and peace which
have their origin in men's faithfulness to God and to His holy will. (6)
If, in view of peculiar circumstances obtaining among peoples, special
civil recognition is given to one religious community in the constitutional
order of society, it is at the same time imperative that the right of all
citizens and religious communities to religious freedom should be recognized
and made effective in practice.
Finally, government is to see to it that equality of citizens before the
law, which is itself an element of the common good, is never violated, whether
openly or covertly, for religious reasons. Nor is there to be discrimination
It follows that a wrong is done when government imposes upon its people, by
force or fear or other means, the profession or repudiation of any religion, or
when it hinders men from joining or leaving a religious community. All the more
is it a violation of the will of God and of the sacred rights of the person and
the family of nations when force is brought to bear in any way in order to
destroy or repress religion, either in the whole of mankind or in a particular
country or in a definite community.
7. The right to religious freedom is exercised in human society: hence its
exercise is subject to certain regulatory norms. In the use of all freedoms the
moral principle of personal and social responsibility is to be observed. In the
exercise of their rights, individual men and social groups are bound by the
moral law to have respect both for the rights of others and for their own
duties toward others and for the common welfare of all. Men are to deal with
their fellows in justice and civility.
Furthermore, society has the right to defend itself against possible abuses
committed on the pretext of freedom of religion. It is the special duty of
government to provide this protection. However, government is not to act in an
arbitrary fashion or in an unfair spirit of partisanship. Its action is to be
controlled by juridical norms which are in conformity with the objective moral
order. These norms arise out of the need for the effective safeguard of the
rights of all citizens and for the peaceful settlement of conflicts of rights,
also out of the need for an adequate care of genuine public peace, which comes
about when men live together in good order and in true justice, and finally out
of the need for a proper guardianship of public morality.
These matters constitute the basic component of the common welfare: they
are what is meant by public order. For the rest, the usages of society are to
be the usages of freedom in their full range: that is, the freedom of man is to
be respected as far as possible and is not to be curtailed except when and
insofar as necessary.
8. Many pressures are brought to bear upon the men of our day, to the point
where the danger arises lest they lose the possibility of acting on their own
judgment. On the other hand, not a few can be found who seem inclined to use
the name of freedom as the pretext for refusing to submit to authority and for
making light of the duty of obedience. Wherefore this Vatican Council urges
everyone, especially those who are charged with the task of educating others,
to do their utmost to form men who, on the one hand, will respect the moral
order and be obedient to lawful authority, and on the other hand, will be
lovers of true freedom-men, in other words, who will come to decisions on their
own judgment and in the light of truth, govern their activities with a sense of
responsibility, and strive after what is true and right, willing always to join
with others in cooperative effort.
Religious freedom therefore ought to have this further purpose and aim,
namely, that men may come to act with greater responsibility in fulfilling
their duties in community life.
9. The declaration of this Vatican Council on the right of man to
religious freedom has its foundation in the dignity of the person, whose
exigencies have come to be are fully known to human reason through centuries of
experience. What is more, this doctrine of freedom has roots in divine
revelation, and for this reason Christians are bound to respect it all the more
conscientiously. Revelation does not indeed affirm in so many words the right
of man to immunity from external coercion in matters religious. It does,
however, disclose the dignity of the human person in its full dimensions. It
gives evidence of the respect which Christ showed toward the freedom with which
man is to fulfill his duty of belief in the word of God and it gives us
lessons in the spirit which disciples of such a Master ought to adopt and
continually follow. Thus further light is cast upon the general principles upon
which the doctrine of this declaration on religious freedom is based. In
particular, religious freedom in society is entirely consonant with the freedom
of the act of Christian faith.
10. It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response
to God in faith must be free: no one therefore is to be forced to embrace the
Christian faith against his own will.(8) This doctrine is contained in the word
of God and it was constantly proclaimed by the Fathers of the Church.(7) The
act of faith is of its very nature a free act. Man, redeemed by Christ the
Savior and through Christ Jesus called to be God's adopted son,(9) cannot give
his adherence to God revealing Himself unless, under the drawing of the
Father,(10) he offers to God the reasonable and free submission of faith. It is
therefore completely in accord with the nature of faith that in matters
religious every manner of coercion on the part of men should be excluded. In
consequence, the principle of religious freedom makes no small contribution to
the creation of an environment in which men can without hindrance be invited to
the Christian faith, embrace it of their own free will, and profess it
effectively in their whole manner of life.
11. God calls men to serve Him in spirit and in truth, hence they are bound
in conscience but they stand under no compulsion. God has regard for the
dignity of the human person whom He Himself created and man is to be guided by
his own judgment and he is to enjoy freedom. This truth appears at its height
in Christ Jesus, in whom God manifested Himself and His ways with men. Christ
is at once our Master and our Lord(11) and also meek and humble of heart.(12)
In attracting and inviting His disciples He used patience.(13) He wrought
miracles to illuminate His teaching and to establish its truth, but His
intention was to rouse faith in His hearers and to confirm them in faith, not
to exert coercion upon them.(14) He did indeed denounce the unbelief of some
who listened to Him, but He left vengeance to God in expectation of the day of
judgment.(15) When He sent His Apostles into the world, He said to them: "He
who believes and is baptized will be saved. He who does not believe will be
condemned" (Mark 16:16). But He Himself, noting that the cockle had been
sown amid the wheat, gave orders that both should be allowed to grow until the
harvest time, which will come at the end of the world.(16) He refused to be a
political messiah, ruling by force:(17) He preferred to call Himself the Son
of Man, who came "to serve and to give his life as a ransom for the many"
(Mark 10:45). He showed Himself the perfect servant of God,(18) who "does
not break the bruised reed nor extinguish the smoking flax" (Matt. 12:20).
He acknowledged the power of government and its rights, when He commanded
that tribute be given to Caesar: but He gave clear warning that the higher
rights of God are to be kept inviolate: "Render to Caesar the things that
are Caesar's and to God the things that are God's" (Matt. 22:21). In the
end, when He completed on the cross the work of redemption whereby He achieved
salvation and true freedom for men, He brought His revelation to completion.
For He bore witness to the truth,(19) but He refused to impose the truth by
force on those who spoke against it. Not by force of blows does His rule assert
its claims.(20) It is established by witnessing to the truth and by hearing the
truth, and it extends its dominion by the love whereby Christ, lifted up on the
cross, draws all men to Himself.(21)
Taught by the word and example of Christ, the Apostles followed the same
way. From the very origins of the Church the disciples of Christ strove to
convert men to faith in Christ as the Lord; not, however, by the use of
coercion or of devices unworthy of the Gospel, but by the power, above all, of
the word of God.(22) Steadfastly they proclaimed to all the plan of God our
Savior, "who wills that all men should be saved and come to the
acknowledgment of the truth" (1 Tim. 2:4). At the same time, however, they
showed respect for those of weaker stuff, even though they were in error, and
thus they made it plain that "each one of us is to render to God an
account of himself" (Romans 14:12),(23) and for that reason is bound to
obey his conscience. Like Christ Himself, the Apostles were unceasingly bent
upon bearing witness to the truth of God, and they showed the fullest measure
of boldness in "speaking the word with confidence" (Acts 4:31) (24)
before the people and their rulers. With a firm faith they held that the Gospel
is indeed the power of God unto salvation for all who believe.(25) Therefore
they rejected all "carnal weapons:(26) they followed the example of the
gentleness and respectfulness of Christ and they preached the word of God in
the full confidence that there was resident in this word itself a divine power
able to destroy all the forces arrayed against God(27) and bring men to faith
in Christ and to His service.(28) As the Master, so too the Apostles recognized
legitimate civil authority. "For there is no power except from God,"
the Apostle teaches, and thereafter commands: "Let everyone be subject to
higher authorities.... He who resists authority resists God's ordinance"
(Romans 13:1-5).(29) At the same time, however, they did not hesitate to speak
out against governing powers which set themselves in opposition to the holy
will of God: "It is necessary to obey God rather than men" (Acts
5:29).(30) This is the way along which the martyrs and other faithful have
walked through all ages and over all the earth.
12. In faithfulness therefore to the truth of the Gospel, the Church is
following the way of Christ and the apostles when she recognizes and gives
support to the principle of religious freedom as befitting the dignity of man
and as being in accord with divine revelation. Throughout the ages the Church
has kept safe and handed on the doctrine received from the Master and from the
apostles. In the life of the People of God, as it has made its pilgrim way
through the vicissitudes of human history, there has at times appeared a way of
acting that was hardly in accord with the spirit of the Gospel or even opposed
to it. Nevertheless, the doctrine of the Church that no one is to be coerced
into faith has always stood firm.
Thus the leaven of the Gospel has long been about its quiet work in the
minds of men, and to it is due in great measure the fact that in the course of
time men have come more widely to recognize their dignity as persons, and the
conviction has grown stronger that the person in society is to be kept free
from all manner of coercion in matters religious.
13. Among the things that concern the good of the Church and indeed the
welfare of society here on earth-things therefore that are always and
everywhere to be kept secure and defended against all injury-this certainly is
preeminent, namely, that the Church should enjoy that full measure of freedom
which her care for the salvation of men requires.(31) This is a sacred
freedom, because the only-begotten Son endowed with it the Church which He
purchased with His blood. Indeed it is so much the property of the Church that
to act against it is to act against the will of God. The freedom of the Church
is the fundamental principle in what concerns the relations between the Church
and governments and the whole civil order.
In human society and in the face of government the Church claims freedom
for herself in her character as a spiritual authority, established by Christ
the Lord, upon which there rests, by divine mandate, the duty of going out into
the whole world and preaching the Gospel to every creature.(32) The Church
also claims freedom for herself in her character as a society of men who have
the right to live in society in accordance with the precepts of the Christian
In turn, where the principle of religious freedom is not only proclaimed in
words or simply incorporated in law but also given sincere and practical
application, there the Church succeeds in achieving a stable situation of right
as well as of fact and the independence which is necessary for the fulfillment
of her divine mission.
This independence is precisely what the authorities of the Church claim in
society.(34) At the same time, the Christian faithful, in common with all
other men, possess the civil right not to be hindered in leading their lives in
accordance with their consciences. Therefore, a harmony exists between the
freedom of the Church and the religious freedom which is to be recognized as
the right of all men and communities and sanctioned by constitutional law.
14. In order to be faithful to the divine command, "teach all nations"
(Matt. 28:19-20), the Catholic Church must work with all urgency and concern "that
the word of God be spread abroad and glorified" (2 Thess. 3:1). Hence the
Church earnestly begs of its children that, "first of all, supplications,
prayers, petitions, acts of thanksgiving be made for all men.... For this is
good and agreeable in the sight of God our Savior, who wills that all men be
saved and come to the knowledge of the truth" (1 Tim. 2:1-4). In the
formation of their consciences, the Christian faithful ought carefully to
attend to the sacred and certain doctrine of the Church.(35) For the Church
is, by the will of Christ, the teacher of the truth. It is her duty to give
utterance to, and authoritatively to teach, that truth which is Christ Himself,
and also to declare and confirm by her authority those principles of the moral
order which have their origins in human nature itself. Furthermore, let
Christians walk in wisdom in the face of those outside, "in the Holy
Spirit, in unaffected love, in the word of truth" (2 Cor. 6:6-7), and let
them be about their task of spreading the light of life with all confidence(36)
and apostolic courage, even to the shedding of their blood.
The disciple is bound by a grave obligation toward Christ, his Master, ever
more fully to understand the truth received from Him, faithfully to proclaim
it, and vigorously to defend it, never-be it understood-having recourse to
means that are incompatible with the spirit of the Gospel. At the same time,
the charity of Christ urges him to love and have prudence and patience in his
dealings with those who are in error or in ignorance with regard to the
faith.(37) All is to be taken into account-the Christian duty to Christ, the
life-giving word which must be proclaimed, the rights of the human person, and
the measure of grace granted by God through Christ to men who are invited
freely to accept and profess the faith.
15. The fact is that men of the present day want to be able freely to
profess their religion in private and in public. Indeed, religious freedom has
already been declared to be a civil right in most constitutions, and it is
solemnly recognized in international documents.(38) The further fact is that
forms of government still exist under which, even though freedom of religious
worship receives constitutional recognition, the powers of government are
engaged in the effort to deter citizens from the profession of religion and to
make life very difficult and dangerous for religious communities.
This council greets with joy the first of these two facts as among the
signs of the times. With sorrow, however, it denounces the other fact, as only
to be deplored. The council exhorts Catholics, and it directs a plea to all
men, most carefully to consider how greatly necessary religious freedom is,
especially in the present condition of the human family. All nations are coming
into even closer unity. Men of different cultures and religions are being
brought together in closer relationships. There is a growing consciousness of
the personal responsibility that every man has. All this is evident.
Consequently, in order that relationships of peace and harmony be established
and maintained within the whole of mankind, it is necessary that religious
freedom be everywhere provided with an effective constitutional guarantee and
that respect be shown for the high duty and right of man freely to lead his
religious life in society.
May the God and Father of all grant that the human family, through careful
observance of the principle of religious freedom in society, may be brought by
the grace of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit to the sublime and
unending and "glorious freedom of the sons of God" (Rom. 8:21).
1. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963: AAS
55 (1963) p. 279; ibid., p. 265; Pius XII, radio message, Dec. 24, 1944: AAS 37
(1945), p. 14.
2. Cf. John XXIII, encycL "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963: AAS
55 (1963), pp. 260-261; Pius XII, radio message, Dec. 24, 1942: AAS 35 (1943),
p. 19; Pius XI, encycl. "Mit Brennender Sorge," March 14, 1937: AAS 29
(1937), p. 160; Leo XIII, encycl. "Libertas Praestantissimum," June
20, 1888: Acts of Leo XIII 8 (1888), p. 237-238.
3. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963: AAS
55 (1963), p. 270; Paul VI, radio message, Dec. 22, 1964: AAS 57 (1965), pp.
4. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Mater et Magistra," May 15, 1961: AAS
53 (1961), p. 417; idem, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963:
AAS 55 (1963), p. 273.
5. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963: AAS
55 (1963), pp. 273-274; Pius XII, radio message, June 1 1941: AAS 33 (1941), p.
6. Cf. Leo XIII, encycl. "Immortale Dei," Nov. 1, 1885: AAS 18
(1885) p. 161.
7. Cf. Lactantius "Divinarum Institutionum," Book V, 19: CSEL 19,
pp. 463-464, 465: PL 6, 614 and 616 (ch. 20); St. Ambrose, "Epistola ad
Valentianum Imp.," Letter 21: PL 16, 1005; St. Augustine, "Contra
Litteras Petiliani," Book II, ch. 83: CSEL 52 p. 112: PL 43, 315; cf. C.
23, q. 5, c. 33, (ed. Friedberg, col. 939); idem, Letter 23: PL 33, 98, idem,
Letter 34: PL 33, 132; idem, Letter 35: PL 33, 135; St. Gregory the Great, "Epistola
ad Virgilium et Theodorum Episcopos Massiliae Galliarum, Register of Letters I,
45: MGH Ep. 1, p. 72: PL 77, 510-511 (Book I, ep. 47); idem, "Epistola ad
Johannem Episcopum Constantinopolitanum," Register of Letters, III, 52: MGH
Letter 1, p. 210: PL 77, 649 (Book III, Letter 53); cf. D. 45, c. 1 (ed.
Friedberg, col 160); Council of Toledo IV, c. 57: Mansi 10, 633; cf. D. 45, c. 5
(ed. Friedberg, col. 161-162); Clement III: X., V, 6, 9: ed. Friedberg, col.
774; Innocent III, "Epistola ad Arelatensem Archiepiscopum," X., III,
42, 3: Friedberg, col. 646.
8. Cf. CIC, c. 1351; Pius XII, allocution to prelate auditors and other
officials and administrators of the tribune of the Holy Roman Rota, Oct. 6,
1946: AAS 38 (1946), p. 394; idem. Encycl Mystici Corporis," June 29, 1943:
AAS (1943) p. 243.
9. Cf. Eph. 1:5.
10. Cf. John 6:44.
11. Cf. John 13:13.
12. Cf. Matt. 11:29.
13. Cf Matt. 11:28-30; John 6:67-68.
14. Cf Matt. 9:28-29; Mark 9:23-24; 6:5-6; Paul VI, encycl. "Ecclesiam
Suam," Aug. 6, 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 642-643.
15. Cf. Matt. 11:20-24; Rom. 12:19-20; 2 Thess. 1:8.
16. Cf. Matt. 13:30 and 40-42.
17. Cf. Matt. 4:8-10; John 6:15.
18. Cf. Is. 42:1-4.
19. Cf. John 18:37.
20. Cf. Matt. 26:51-53; John 18:36.
21. Cf. John 12:32.
22. Cf. 1 Cor. 2:3-5; 1 Thess. 2:3-5.
23. Cf. Rom. 14:1-23; 1 Cor. 8:9-13; 10:23-33.
24. Cf. Eph. 6:19-20.
25. Cf. Rom. 1:16.
26. Cf. 2 Cor. 10:4; 1 Thess. 5:8-9.
27. Cf. Eph. 6:11-17.
28. Cf. 2 Cor. 10:3-5.
29. Cf. 1 Pet. 2:13-17.
30. Cf. Acts 4: 19-20.
31. Cf. Leo XIII, letter "Officio Sanctissimo," Dec. 22 1887: AAS
20 (1887), p. 269; idem, letter "Ex Litteris," April 7 1887: AAS 19
(1886), p. 465.
32. Cf. Mark 16:15; Matt. 28:18-20, Pius XII, encycl. "Summi
Pontificatus," Oct. 20, 1939: AAS 31 (1939). pp. 445-446.
33. Cf. Pius XI, letter "Firmissiman Constantiam," March 28, 1937:
AAS 29 (1937), p. 196.
34. Cf. Pius XII, allocution, "Ci Riesce," Dec. 6, 1953: AAS 45
(1953), p. 802.
35. Cf. Pius XII, radio message, March 23, 1952: AAS 44 (1952) pp. 270-278.
36. Cf. Acts 4:29.
37. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963:AAS
55 (1963), pp. 299-300.
38. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem in Terris," April 11, 1963:AAS
55 (1963) pp. 295-296.