Declaration on Christian Education (Gravissum Educationis)
Declaration on Christian Education (Gravissum Educationis) proclaimed by Pope Paul VI on October 28, 1965
The Sacred Ecumenical Council has considered with care how extremely
important education is in the life of man and how its influence ever grows in
the social progress of this age.(1)
Indeed, the circumstances of our time have made it easier and at once more
urgent to educate young people and, what is more, to continue the education of
adults. Men are more aware of their own dignity and position; more and more
they want to take an active part in social and especially in economic and
political life.(2) Enjoying more leisure, as they sometimes do, men find that
the remarkable development of technology and scientific investigation and the
new means of communication offer them an opportunity of attaining more easily
their cultural and spiritual inheritance and of fulfilling one another in the
closer ties between groups and even between peoples.
Consequently, attempts are being made everywhere to promote more education.
The rights of men to an education, particularly the primary rights of children
and parents, are being proclaimed and recognized in public documents.(3) As the
number of pupils rapidly increases, schools are multiplied and expanded far and
wide and other educational institutions are established. New experiments are
conducted in methods of education and teaching. Mighty attempts are being made
to obtain education for all, even though vast numbers of children and young
people are still deprived of even rudimentary training and so many others lack
a suitable education in which truth and love are developed together.
To fulfill the mandate she has received from her divine founder of
proclaiming the mystery of salvation to all men and of restoring all things in
Christ, Holy Mother the Church must be concerned with the whole of man's life,
even the secular part of it insofar as it has a bearing on his heavenly
calling.(4) Therefore she has a role in the progress and development of
education. Hence this sacred synod declares certain fundamental principles of
Christian education especially in schools. These principles will have to be
developed at greater length by a special post-conciliar commission and applied
by episcopal conferences to varying local situations.
1. The Meaning of the Universal Right to an Education
All men of every race, condition and age, since they enjoy the dignity of a
human being, have an inalienable right to an education (5) that is in keeping
with their ultimate goal,(6) their ability, their sex, and the culture and
tradition of their country, and also in harmony with their fraternal
association with other peoples in the fostering of true unity and peace on
earth. For a true education aims at the formation of the human person in the
pursuit of his ultimate end and of the good of the societies of which, as man,
he is a member, and in whose obligations, as an adult, he will share.
Therefore children and young people must be helped, with the aid of the
latest advances in psychology and the arts and science of teaching, to develop
harmoniously their physical, moral and intellectual endowments so that they may
gradually acquire a mature sense of responsibility in striving endlessly to
form their own lives properly and in pursuing true freedom as they surmount the
vicissitudes of life with courage and constancy. Let them be given also, as
they advance in years, a positive and prudent sexual education. Moreover they
should be so trained to take their part in social life that properly instructed
in the necessary and opportune skills they can become actively involved in
various community organizations, open to discourse with others and willing to
do their best to promote the common good.
This sacred synod likewise declares that children and young people have a
right to be motivated to appraise moral values with a right conscience, to
embrace them with a personal adherence, together with a deeper knowledge and
love of God. Consequently it earnestly entreats all those who hold a position
of public authority or who are in charge of education to see to it that youth
is never deprived of this sacred right. It further exhorts the sons of the
Church to give their attention with generosity to the entire field of
education, having especially in mind the need of extending very soon the
benefits of a suitable education and training to everyone in all parts of the
2. Christian Education
Since all Christians have become by rebirth of water and the Holy Spirit a
new creature(8) so that they should be called and should be children of God,
they have a right to a Christian education. A Christian education does not
merely strive for the maturing of a human person as just now described, but has
as its principal purpose this goal: that the baptized, while they are gradually
introduced the knowledge of the mystery of salvation, become ever more aware
of the gift of Faith they have received, and that they learn in addition how to
worship God the Father in spirit and truth (cf. John 4:23) especially in
liturgical action, and be conformed in their personal lives according to the
new man created in justice and holiness of truth (Eph. 4:22-24); also that they
develop into perfect manhood, to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ
(cf. Eph. 4:13) and strive for the growth of the Mystical Body; moreover, that
aware of their calling, they learn not only how to bear witness to the hope
that is in them (cf. Peter 3:15) but also how to help in the Christian
formation of the world that takes place when natural powers viewed in the full
consideration of man redeemed by Christ contribute to the good of the whole
society.(9) Wherefore this sacred synod recalls to pastors of souls their most
serious obligation to see to it that all the faithful, but especially the youth
who are the hope of the Church, enjoy this Christian education.(10)
3. The Authors of Education
Since parents have given children their life, they are bound by the most
serious obligation to educate their offspring and therefore must be recognized
as the primary and principal educators.(11) This role in education is so
important that only with difficulty can it be supplied where it is lacking.
Parents are the ones who must create a family atmosphere animated by love and
respect for God and man, in which the well-rounded personal and social
education of children is fostered. Hence the family is the first school of the
social virtues that every society needs. It is particularly in the Christian
family, enriched by the grace and office of the sacrament of matrimony, that
children should be taught from their early years to have a knowledge of God
according to the faith received in Baptism, to worship Him, and to love their
neighbor. Here, too, they find their first experience of a wholesome human
society and of the Church. Finally, it is through the family that they are
gradually led to a companionship with their fellowmen and with the people of
God. Let parents, then, recognize the inestimable importance a truly Christian
family has for the life and progress of God's own people.(12)
The family which has the primary duty of imparting education needs help of
the whole community. In addition, therefore, to the rights of parents and
others to whom the parents entrust a share in the work of education, certain
rights and duties belong indeed to civil society, whose role is to direct what
is required for the common temporal good. Its function is to promote the
education of youth in many ways, namely: to protect the duties and rights of
parents and others who share in education and to give them aid; according to
the principle of subsidiarity, when the endeavors of parents and other
societies are lacking, to carry out the work of education in accordance with
the wishes of the parents; and, moreover, as the common good demands, to build
schools and institutions.(13)
Finally, in a special way, the duty of educating belongs to the Church, not
merely because she must be recognized as a human society capable of educating,
but especially because she has the responsibility of announcing the way of
salvation to all men, of communicating the life of Christ to those who
believe, and, in her unfailing solicitude, of assisting men to be able to come
to the fullness of this life.(14) The Church is bound as a mother to give to
these children of hers an education by which their whole life can be imbued
with the spirit of Christ and at the same time do all she can to promote for
all peoples the complete perfection of the human person, the good of earthly
society and the building of a world that is more human.(15)
4. Various Aids to Christian Education
In fulfilling its educational role, the Church, eager to employ all
suitable aids, is concerned especially about those which are her very own.
Foremost among these is catechetical instruction,(16) which enlightens and
strengthens the faith, nourishes life according to the spirit of Christ, leads
to intelligent and active participation in the liturgical mystery(17) and gives
motivation for apostolic activity. The Church esteems highly and seeks to
penetrate and ennoble with her own spirit also other aids which belong to the
general heritage of man and which are of great influence in forming souls and
molding men, such as the media of communication,(18) various groups for mental
and physical development, youth associations, and, in particular, schools.
5. The Importance of Schools
Among all educational instruments the school has a special importance.(19)
It is designed not only to develop with special care the intellectual faculties
but also to form the ability to judge rightly, to hand on the cultural legacy
of previous generations, to foster a sense of values, to prepare for
professional life. Between pupils of different talents and backgrounds it
promotes friendly relations and fosters a spirit of mutual understanding; and
it establishes as it were a center whose work and progress must be shared
together by families, teachers, associations of various types that foster
cultural, civic, and religious life, as well as by civil society and the entire
Beautiful indeed and of great importance is the vocation of all those who
aid parents in fulfilling their duties and who, as representatives of the human
community, undertake the task of education in schools. This vocation demands
special qualities of mind and heart, very careful preparation, and continuing
readiness to renew and to adapt.
6. The Duties and Rights of Parents
Parents who have the primary and inalienable right and duty to educate
their children must enjoy true liberty in their choice of schools.
Consequently, the public power, which has the obligation to protect and defend
the rights of citizens, must see to it, in its concern for distributive
justice, that public subsidies are paid out in such a way that parents are
truly free to choose according to their conscience the schools they want for
In addition it is the task of the state to see to it that all citizens are
able to come to a suitable share in culture and are properly prepared to
exercise their civic duties and rights. Therefore the state must protect the
right of children to an adequate school education, check on the ability of
teachers and the excellence of their training, look after the health of the
pupils and in general, promote the whole school project. But it must always
keep in mind the principle of subsidiarity so that there is no kind of school
monopoly, for this is opposed to the native rights of the human person, to the
development and spread of culture, to the peaceful association of citizens and
to the pluralism that exists today in ever so many societies.(21)
Therefore this sacred synod exhorts the faithful to assist to their utmost
in finding suitable methods of education and programs of study and in forming
teachers who can give youth a true education. Through the associations of
parents in particular they should further with their assistance all the work of
the school but especially the moral education it must impart.(22)
7. Moral and Religious Education in all Schools
Feeling very keenly the weighty responsibility of diligently caring for the
moral and religious education of all her children, the Church must be present
with her own special affection and help for the great number who are being
trained in schools that are not Catholic. This is possible by the witness of
the lives of those who teach and direct them, by the apostolic action of their
fellow-students,(23) but especially by the ministry of priests and laymen who
give them the doctrine of salvation in a way suited to their age and
circumstances and provide spiritual aid in every way the times and conditions
The Church reminds parents of the duty that is theirs to arrange and even
demand that their children be able to enjoy these aids and advance in their
Christian formation to a degree that is abreast of their development in secular
subjects. Therefore the Church esteems highly those civil authorities and
societies which, bearing in mind the pluralism of contemporary society and
respecting religious freedom, assist families so that the education of their
children can be imparted in all schools according to the individual moral and
religious principles of the families.(24)
8. Catholic Schools
The influence of the Church in the field of education is shown in a special
manner by the Catholic school. No less than other schools does the Catholic
school pursue cultural goals and the human formation of youth. But its proper
function is to create for the school community a special atmosphere animated by
the Gospel spirit of freedom and charity, to help youth grow according to the
new creatures they were made through baptism as they develop their own
personalities, and finally to order the whole of human culture to the news of
salvation so that the knowledge the students gradually acquire of the world,
life and man is illumined by faith.(25) So indeed the Catholic school, while it
is open, as it must be, to the situation of the contemporary world, leads its
students to promote efficaciously the good of the earthly city and also
prepares them for service in the spread of the Kingdom of God, so that by
leading an exemplary apostolic life they become, as it were, a saving leaven in
the human community.
Since, therefore, the Catholic school can be such an aid to the fulfillment
of the mission of the People of God and to the fostering of the dialogue
between the Church and mankind, to the benefit of both, it retains even in our
present circumstances the utmost importance. Consequently this sacred synod
proclaims anew what has already been taught in several documents of the
magisterium,(26) namely: the right of the Church freely to establish and to
conduct schools of every type and level. And the council calls to mind that the
exercise of a right of this kind contributes in the highest degree to the
protection of freedom of conscience, the rights of parents, as well as to the
betterment of culture itself.
But let teachers recognize that the Catholic school depends upon them
almost entirely for the accomplishment of its goals and programs.(27) They
should therefore be very carefully prepared so that both in secular and
religious knowledge they are equipped with suitable qualifications and also
with a pedagogical skill that is in keeping with the findings of the
contemporary world. Intimately linked in charity to one another and to their
students and endowed with an apostolic spirit, may teachers by their life as
much as by their instruction bear witness to Christ, the unique Teacher. Let
them work as partners with parents and together with them in every phase of
education give due consideration to the difference of sex and the proper ends
Divine Providence assigns to each sex in the family and in society. Let them do
all they can to stimulate their students to act for themselves and even after
graduation to continue to assist them with advice, friendship and by
establishing special associations imbued with the true spirit of the Church.
The work of these teachers, this sacred synod declares, is in the real sense of
the word an apostolate most suited to and necessary for our times and at once
a true service offered to society. The Council also reminds Catholic parents of
the duty of entrusting their children to Catholic schools wherever and whenever
it is possible and of supporting these schools to the best of their ability and
of cooperating with them for the education of their children.(28)
9. Different Types of Catholic Schools
To this concept of a Catholic school all schools that are in any way
dependent on the Church must conform as far as possible, though the Catholic
school is to take on different forms in keeping with local circumstances.(29)
Thus the Church considers very dear to her heart those Catholic schools, found
especially in the areas of the new churches, which are attended also by
students who are not Catholics.
Attention should be paid to the needs of today in establishing and
directing Catholic schools. Therefore, though primary and secondary schools,
the foundation of education, must still be fostered, great importance is to be
attached to those which are required in a particular way by contemporary
conditions, such as: professional(30) and technical schools, centers for
educating adults and promoting social welfare, or for the retarded in need of
special care, and also schools for preparing teachers for religious instruction
and other types of education.
This Sacred Council of the Church earnestly entreats pastors and all the
faithful to spare no sacrifice in helping Catholic schools fulfill their
function in a continually more perfect way, and especially in caring for the
needs of those who are poor in the goods of this world or who are deprived of
the assistance and affection of a family or who are strangers to the gift of
10. Catholic Colleges and Universities
The Church is concerned also with schools of a higher level, especially
colleges and universities. In those schools dependent on her she intends that
by their very constitution individual subjects be pursued according to their
own principles, method, and liberty of scientific inquiry, in such a way that
an ever deeper understanding in these fields may be obtained and that, as
questions that are new and current are raised and investigations carefully made
according to the example of the doctors of the Church and especially of St.
Thomas Aquinas,(31) there may be a deeper realization of the harmony of faith
and science. Thus there is accomplished a public, enduring and pervasive
influence of the Christian mind in the furtherance of culture and the students
of these institutions are molded into men truly outstanding in their training,
ready to undertake weighty responsibilities in society and witness to the faith
in the world.(32)
In Catholic universities where there is no faculty of sacred theology there
should be established an institute or chair of sacred theology in which there
should be lectures suited to lay students. Since science advances by means of
the investigations peculiar to higher scientific studies, special attention
should be given in Catholic universities and colleges to institutes that serve
primarily the development of scientific research.
The sacred synod heartily recommends that Catholic colleges and
universities be conveniently located in different parts of the world, but in
such a way that they are outstanding not for their numbers but for their
pursuit of knowledge. Matriculation should be readily available to students of
real promise, even though they be of slender means, especially to students from
the newly emerging nations.
Since the destiny of society and of the Church itself is intimately linked
with the progress of young people pursuing higher studies,(33) the pastors of
the Church are to expend their energies not only on the spiritual life of
students who attend Catholic universities, but, solicitous for the spiritual
formation of all their children, they must see to it, after consultations
between bishops, that even at universities that are not Catholic there should
be associations and university centers under Catholic auspices in which
priests, religious and laity, carefully selected and prepared, should give
abiding spiritual and intellectual assistance to the youth of the university.
Whether in Catholic universities or others, young people of greater ability who
seem suited for teaching or research should be specially helped and encouraged
to undertake a teaching career.
11. Faculties of Sacred Sciences
The Church expects much from the zealous endeavors of the faculties of the
sacred sciences.(34) For to them she entrusts the very serious responsibility
of preparing her own students not only for the priestly ministry, but
especially for teaching in the seats of higher ecclesiastical studies or for
promoting learning on their own or for undertaking the work of a more rigorous
intellectual apostolate. Likewise it is the role of these very faculties to
make more penetrating inquiry into the various aspects of the sacred sciences
so that an ever deepening understanding of sacred Revelation is obtained, the
legacy of Christian wisdom handed down by our forefathers is more fully
developed, the dialogue with our separated brethren and with non-Christians is
fostered, and answers are given to questions arising from the development of
Therefore ecclesiastical faculties should reappraise their own laws so that
they can better promote the sacred sciences and those linked with them and, by
employing up-to-date methods and aids, lead their students to more penetrating
12. Coordination to be Fostered in Scholastic Matters
Cooperation is the order of the day. It increases more and more to supply
the demand on a diocesan, national and international level. Since it is
altogether necessary in scholastic matters, every means should be employed to
foster suitable cooperation between Catholic schools, and between these and
other schools that collaboration should be developed which the good of all
mankind requires.(36) From greater coordination and cooperative endeavor
greater fruits will be derived particularly in the area of academic
institutions. Therefore in every university let the various faculties work
mutually to this end, insofar as their goal will permit. In addition, let the
universities also endeavor to work together by promoting international
gatherings, by sharing scientific inquiries with one another, by communicating
their discoveries to one another, by having exchange of professors for a time
and by promoting all else that is conducive to greater assistance.
The sacred synod earnestly entreats young people themselves to become aware
of the importance of the work of education and to prepare themselves to take it
up, especially where because of a shortage of teachers the education of youth
is in jeopardy. This same sacred synod, while professing its gratitude to
priests, Religious men and women, and the laity who by their evangelical
self-dedication are devoted to the noble work of education and of schools of
every type and level, exhorts them to persevere generously in the work they
have undertaken and, imbuing their students with the spirit of Christ, to
strive to excel in pedagogy and the pursuit of knowledge in such a way that
they not merely advance the internal renewal of the Church but preserve and
enhance its beneficent influence upon today's world, especially the
1. Among many documents illustrating the importance of education confer
above all apostolic letter of Benedict XV, Communes Litteras, April 10, 1919:
A.A.S. 11 (1919) p. 172. Pius XI's apostolic encyclical, Divini Illius Magistri,
Dec. 31, 1929: A.A.S. 22 (1930) pp. 49-86. Pius XII's allocution to the youths
of Italian Catholic Action, April 20, 1946: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol.
8, pp. 53-57. Allocution to fathers of French families, Sept. 18, 1951:
Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 13, pp. 241-245. John XXIII's 30th
anniversary message on the publication of the encyclical letter, Divini Illius
Magistri, Dec. 30, 1959: A.A.S. 52 (1960) pp. 57-S9. Paul VI's allocution to
members of Federated Institutes Dependent on Ecclesiastic Authority, Dec. 30,
1963: Encyclicals and Discourses of His holiness Paul VI, Rome, 1964, pp.
601-603. Above all are to be consulted the Acts and Documents of the Second
Vatican Council appearing in the first series of the ante-preparatrory phase.
vol. 3. pp. 363-364; 370-371; 373-374.
2. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter Mater et Magistra, May 15, 1961:
A.A.S. 53 (1961) pp. 413-415; 417-424; Encyclical letter, Pacem in Terris, April
11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 278 ff.
3. Declaration on the Rights of Man of Dec. 10, 1948, adopted by the General
Assembly of the United Nations, and also cf. the Declaration of the Rights of
Children of Nov. 20 1959; additional protocol to the Convention Safeguarding the
Rights of Men and Fundamental Liberties, Paris, March 20, 1952; regarding that
universal profession of the character of human laws cf. apostolic letter Pacem
in Terris, of John XXIII of April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 295 ff.
4. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter, Mater et Magistra, May 15, 1961:
A.A.S. 53 (1961) p. 402. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on
the Church, no. 17: A.A.S. 57 (1965) p. 21, and schema on the Pastoral
Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, 1965.
5. Pius XII's radio message of Dec. 24, 1942: A.A.S. 35 (1943) pp. 12-19,
and John XXIII's encyclical letter, Pacem in Terris April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55
(1963) p. 259 ff. Also cf. declaration cited on the rights of man in footnote 3.
6. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 31, 1929:
A.A.S. 22 (1930) p. 50 ff.
7. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter, Mater et Magistra, May 15 1961:
A.A.S. 53 (1961) p. 441 ff.
8. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 83.
9. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, no.
36: A.A.S. 57 (1965) p. 41 ff.
10. Cf. Second Vatican Council's schema on the Decree on the Lay Apostolate
(1965), no. 12.
11. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 59 ff.,
encyclical letter Mit Brennender Sorge, March 14, 1937: A.A.S. 29; Pius XII's
allocution to the first national congress of the Italian Catholic Teachers'
Association, Sept. 8, 1946: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 8, p. 218.
12. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, nos.
11 and 35: A.A.S. 57 (1965) pp. 16, 40 ff.
13. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 63 ff.
Pius XII's radio message of June 1, 1941: A.A.S. 33 (1941) p. 200; allocution to
the first national congress of the Association of Italian Catholic Teachers,
Sept 8, 1946: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 8, 1946: Discourses and Radio
Messages, vol. 8 p. 218. Regarding the principle of subsidiarity, cf. John
XXIII's encyclical letter, Pacem in Terris, April 11, 1963: A.A.S. 55 (1963) p.
14. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1 pp. 53 ff.
and 56 ff.; Encyclical letter, Non Abbiamo Bisogno June 29, 1931: A.A.S. 23
(1931) p. 311 ff. Pius XII's letter from Secretariat of State to 28th Italian
Social Week, Sept. 20, 1955; L'Osservatore Romano, Sept. 29, 1955.
15. The Church praises those local, national and international civic
authorities who, conscious of the urgent necessity in these times, expend all
their energy so that all peoples may benefit from more education and human
culture. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the United Nations General Assembly, Oct.
4, 1965: L'Osservatore Romano, Oct. 6, 1965.
16. Cf. Pius XI's motu proprio. Orbem Catholicum, June 29 1923: A.A.S. 15
(1923) pp. 327-329; decree, Provide Sane, Jan. 12, 1935: A.A.S. 27 (1935) pp.
145-152. Second Vatican Council's Decree on Bishops and Pastoral Duties, nos. 13
17. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, no. 14:
A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 104.
18. Cf. Second Vatican Council's Decree on Communications Media, nos. 13 and
14: A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 149 ff.
19. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 76; Pius
XII's allocution to Bavarian Association of Catholic Teachers, Dec. 31, 1956:
Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 18, p. 746.
20. Cf. Provincial Council of Cincinnati III, a. 1861: Collatio Lacensis,
III, col. 1240, c/d; Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, pp.
60, 63 ff.
21. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 63;
encyclical letter, Non Abbiamo Misogno, June 29, 1931: A.A.S. 23 (1931) p. 305,
Pius XII's letter from the Secretary of State to the 28th Italian Social Week,
Sept. 20, 1955: L'Osservatore Romano, Sept. 29, 1955. Paul VI's allocution to
the Association of Italian Christian Workers, Oct. 6, 1963: Encyclicals and
Discourses of Paul VI, vol. 1, Rome, 1964, p. 230.
22. Cf. John XXIII's message on the 30th anniversary of the encyclical
letter, Divini Illius Magistri, Dec. 30, 1959: A.A.S. 52 (1960) p. 57.
23. The Church considers it as apostolic action of great worth also when
Catholic teachers and associates work in these schools. Cf. Second Vatican
Council's schema of the Decree on the Lay Apostolate (1965), nos. 12 and 16.
24. Cf. Second Vatican Council's schema on the Declaration on Religious
Liberty (1965), no. 5.
25. Cf. Provincial Council of Westminster I, a. 1852: Collatio Lacensis III,
col. 1334, a/b; Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1, p. 77
ff.; Pius XII's allocution to the Bavarian Association of Catholic Teachers,
Dec. 31, 1956: Discourses and Radio Messages, vol. 18, p. 746; Paul VI's
allocution to the members of Federated Institutes Dependent on Ecclesiastic
Authority, Dec. 30, 1963: Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, 1, Rome, 1964,
26. Cf. especially the document mentioned in the first note; moreover this
law of the Church is proclaimed by many provincial councils and in the most
recent declarations of very many of the episcopal conferences.
27. Cf. Pius XI's encyclical letter, Divini Illius Magistri, 1 p. 80 ff.;
Pius XII's allocution to the Catholic Association of Italian Teachers in
Secondary Schools, Jan. 5, 1954: Discourses and Radio Messages, 15, pp. 551-55B;
John XXIII's allocution to the 6th Congress of the Associations of Catholic
Italian Teachers Sept. 5, 1959: Discourses, Messages, Conversations, 1,
Rome,1960, pp. 427-431.
28. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to the Catholic Association of Italian
Teachers in Secondary Schools, Jan. 5, 1954, 1, p. 555.
29. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the International Office of Catholic
Education, Feb. 25, 1964: Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, 2, Rome, 1964,
30. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the Christian Association of Italian
Workers, Oct. 6, 1963: Encyclicals and Discourses of Paul VI, 1, Rome, 1964, p.
31. Cf. Paul VI's allocution to the International Thomistic Congress, Sept.
10, 1965: L'Osservatore Romano, Sept. 13-14, 1965.
32. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to teachers and students of French Institutes
of Higher Catholic Education, Sept. 21, 1950: Discourses and Radio Messages, 12,
pp. 219-221; letters to the 22nd congress of Pax Romana, Aug. 12, 1952:
Discourses and Radio Messages, 14, pp. 567-569; John XXIII's allocution to the
Federation of Catholic Universities, April 1, 1959: Discourses, Messages and
Conversations, 1, Rome, 1960, pp. 226-229; Paul VI's allocution to the Academic
Senate of the Catholic University of Milan, April 5, 1964: Encyclicals and
Discourses of Paul VI, 2, Rome, 1964, pp. 438-443.
33. Cf. Pius XII's allocution to the academic senate and students of the
University of Rome, June 15, 1952: Discourses and Radio Messages, 14, p. 208: "The
direction of today's society principally is placed in the mentality and hearts
of the universities of today."
34. Cf. Pius XII's apostolic constitution, Deus Scientiarum Dominus, May 24,
1931: A.A.S. 23 (1931) pp. 245-247.
35. Cf. Pius XII's encyclical letter, Humani Generis Aug. 12, 1950 A.A.S.
42 (1950) pp. 568 ff. and 578; Paul VI's encyclical letter, Ecclesiam Suam, part
III Aug. 6, 1964; A.A.S. 56 (1964) pp. 637-659; Second Vatican Council's Decree
on Eccumenism: A.A.S. 57 (1965) pp. 90-107.
36. Cf. John XXIII's encyclical letter, Pacem in Terris, April 11, 1963:
A.A.S. 55 (1963) p. 284 and elsewhere.